1983

Article

January 21, 2022

1983 is a common year starting on a Saturday.

In brief

March 23: announcement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) by President Ronald Reagan after the Soviet refusal of the zero option in the euromissile crisis. April 10-November 17, Iran-Iraq war: the four Iranian “Aurora” (Al-Fajr) offensives carried out on the northern front do not yield results. May 16: resumption of the Sudanese civil war. July 23: Beginning of a civil war in Sri Lanka. August 4: Thomas Sankara's coup in Upper Volta. September 1: a South Korean Boeing is shot down by Soviet fighters believing it is dealing with an American spy plane in its airspace, off Sakhalin Island (269 dead). September 3: In Lebanon, the Israeli withdrawal from the Chouf region provokes deadly fighting between Druze from the Progressive Socialist Party and Christians from the Lebanese Forces (“mountain war”). September 16: Arnold Schwarzenegger officially becomes American. October 23: Beirut attacks. October 25: invasion of Grenada. December 10: Raúl Alfonsín restores democracy in Argentina after the military dictatorship.

Events

Africa

8 January: creation, at the instigation of Gabon, of the International Center for Bantu Civilizations (CICIBA). January 11: in Upper Volta, (now Burkina Faso), the "People's Salvation Committee" (CSP) appoints Thomas Sankara Prime Minister. Considered too progressive, he was sacked and arrested on May 17 by President Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo. January 17: Decree deporting illegal immigrants to Nigeria. Around one and a half million people were expelled, including 700,000 Ghanaians, 180,000 Nigeriens, 150,000 Chadians, 120,000 Cameroonians, 5,000 Togolese and 5,000 Beninese. February 27: Legislative and presidential elections in Senegal, won by the Socialist Party and outgoing President Abdou Diouf. March 21: Yamoussoukro, birthplace of Ivorian President Félix Houphouët-Boigny, officially becomes the capital of Côte d'Ivoire. May 16: visit of Guy Penne, adviser to François Mitterrand in Upper Volta. The next day, Prime Minister Thomas Sankara was arrested. the rebellion of the Bor garrison is suppressed by the Sudanese army; resumption of the civil war between the North and the South in Sudan. May 20: the Church Street bombing in Pretoria, carried out by Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the African National Congress, killed 19 people and injured 217. inauguration of the Matadi Bridge, built by Japan, over the Congo River. May 29: Cameroonian legislative elections. June 21, Chad: offensive by the GUNT of Goukouni Oueddei, a refugee in Tibesti, against the government of Hissène Habré, supported by Libya. She takes Faya-Largeau and Abéché, but is repelled by the reaction of Hissène Habré. Gaddafi decides to intervene directly. July 31: founding manifesto of John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army August 4: coup in Upper Volta; Captain Thomas Sankara ousted President Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and handed over all powers to the National Committee of the Revolution, which he chaired (end in 1987). August 10: France launches “Operation Manta” in Chad. French troops intervene in the Chadian-Libyan conflict to support Hissène Habré. August 27: Ahmadou Ahidjo, accused of conspiracy, leaves under pressure the leadership of the Cameroonian National Union, Cameroon's only party. President Paul Biya replaces him in September September 9: introduction of Sharia (Islamic law) in Sudan. October 18: Foundation of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). November 2: in South Africa, a new constitution is approved by referendum by an electorate exclusively

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