1985

Article

August 15, 2022

1985 is a common year starting on a Tuesday.

In brief

March 11: Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in the USSR. June 23: An attack on Air India Flight 182 over the Atlantic kills 339. It is the deadliest attack before those of September 11, 2001. July 10: Rainbow Warrior affair. September 1: The wreck of the Titanic is found by a Franco-American expedition led by Robert Ballard. October 7: Sigonella crisis.

International Relations

March 12: Following the Shultz-Gromyko talks (January 7-8), US-Soviet negotiations on the limitation of space weapons, intercontinental and intermediate missiles resume in Geneva. March 22: Vienna Convention on the protection of the ozone layer. May 2-3: G7 summit in Bonn. François Mitterrand is isolated to resist Ronald Reagan's pressure on new negotiations on international trade within the framework of the GATT and on the participation of Europeans in the Strategic Defense Initiative. August 28: the Whitaker report is adopted by the Commission United Nations Human Rights; he mentions "the Ottoman massacre of the Armenians" as a case of genocide. September 22: signing of the Plaza Accords in New York between the United States, France, the United Kingdom, West Germany and Japan, for a concerted management of exchange rates in order to bring down the dollar (which had reached 10.6 French francs). October 24: for the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations, Ronald Reagan proposes to the USSR to negotiate, in parallel with disarmament negotiations, the settlement of five regional conflicts: Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Ethiopia and Nicaragua.

Events

Africa

1 February: creation of the special fund for Africa within the World Bank, following a proposal by France during a meeting held in Paris. February 10: Nelson Mandela rejects Pieter Willem Botha's offer of parole in a statement read by his daughter Zindzi. March 21: 47 people attending a funeral are killed by police in Langa near Uitenhage on the day of 25th commemoration of the Sharpeville massacre. April 6: Fall of Nimeiry, overthrown by a military coup led by General Swar al-Dahab while he was visiting the United States. July 4: Failed attempt coup d'etat in Guinea by Colonel Diarra Traoré, Prime Minister, while President Lansana Conté takes part in the ECOWAS summit in Togo. Diarra Traoré is arrested and on July 6 riots break out in Conakry against the Malinké whose property is looted. July 20, South Africa: revolt of the black ghettos and establishment of the state of emergency by the Pretoria regime. July 27, Uganda: a military coup led by Bazilio Olara Okello overthrows Milton Obote, replaced by General Tito Okello on July 29. August 27: In Nigeria, the army brings General Ibrahim Babangida to power, who engages to save the country from economic disaster. October 1: Operation Wooden Leg. Raid by the Israeli Air Force against the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Hammam Chott (Tunisia); 68 people are killed (50 Palestinians and 18 Tunisians). October 27: Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the only candidate, wins the Ivorian presidential election. November 25: creation of a group of seven eminent personalities (EPG), led by General Olusegun Obasanjo, former Head of State of Nigeria, and Malcolm Fraser, former Australian Prime Minister, charged by the Commonwealth to follow the evolution of apartheid in South Africa where he went between January and June 1986. December 7: the single party wins the elections