1988

Article

July 6, 2022

1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday.

In brief

February 20: Beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh war. April 14: the Geneva Accords mark the end of the first war in Afghanistan; Soviet soldiers withdrew from May 15. May 4: end of the Lebanon hostage affair. August 8: peaceful demonstrations demanding the establishment of democracy in Burma. August 20: Iran-Iraq war ends.

International Relations

May 29 - June 2: Reagan-Gorbachev summit in Moscow. Ronald Reagan celebrates human rights and freedoms. Agreements providing for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Cuban troops from Angola. June 19-21: G7 summit in Toronto. 9-11 November: first meeting in Geneva of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) created by the UN at the request of the G7. It is responsible for making a synthesis of scientific studies on global warming. December 8: following the earthquake in Yerevan (25,000 dead) in the Soviet Union, on the initiative of President Mitterrand, the UN General Assembly adopts the principle of humanitarian interference: "humanitarian assistance to victims natural disasters and similar emergencies". December 10: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, the guardian of peace. 20 December: adoption in Vienna of the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (organized under the aegis of the UN). It was implemented on November 11, 1990 and reinforced the existing measures in the fight against drug trafficking.

Events

Africa

January 5: Demonstrations by women against the high cost of living in Conakry. January 12-20: Battle of Cuito Cuanavale. February 28: presidential and legislative elections in Senegal. Abdou Diouf is re-elected with 73.2% of the votes cast. March 17-18: Battle of Afabet during the Eritrean War of Independence. Three Ethiopian divisions are destroyed, with perhaps 10,000 dead. The insurgents seize considerable booty. April 24: Paul Biya, the only candidate, is re-elected president of Cameroon. May 16: reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Algeria and Morocco, broken since March 1976. June 6: abolition of the post of Prime Minister in Mali. June 10-11, Chad: Operation Mount Hope III; a Soviet-made Libyan Mil Mi-25 Hind-D attack helicopter crashed in 1987, is recovered by the Americans. June 26: Malian legislative elections. The single list of 82 UDPM candidates (42 outgoing) won 98.56% of the votes cast and won all the seats. June 27, Angolan Civil War: Cuban bombardment on the Calueque dam and ground clash between Angolan and South African soldiers on the Namibian border. July 20: A 14-point agreement is reached between South Africa, Angola and Cuba. 50,000 Cuban soldiers are then in Angola. August 5: Geneva Protocol signed between South Africa, Angola and Cuba, which provides for a ceasefire on August 10 and the total withdrawal of South African troops. August 22: signing of the ceasefire agreement between Angola and South Africa in Ruacana. August 30: Morocco and the Polisario Front begin negotiations. The two parties accept joint mediation by the United Nations and the OAU but do not reach an agreement. September 19: signing of the first structural adjustment program negotiated between Cameroon, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank. September 22, Mali: announcement of the closure of the Taoudeni penal colony (salt mines); three members of the CMLN imprisoned for treason in 1979 are released. The 18