1989

Article

January 21, 2022

1989 is a common year starting on a Sunday.

In brief

February 15: Final withdrawal of the Red Army from Afghanistan. June 4: the Chinese army suppresses the democratic demonstration on Tian'anmen Square in Beijing. The massacre temporarily ruins the prestige of China, which is ostracized from the international community. August 25: The Voyager 2 space probe flies over Neptune, the last of the eight planets in the solar system to have been visited at least once by a space probe. November 9: fall of the Berlin Wall, marking the symbolic end of the Cold War. December 2: Two-day Malta summit between Gorbachev and George H.W. Bush, during which the latter declares that the Cold War is over. December 16-22: Romanian Revolution. December 20: Invasion of Panama by the United States. December 22: Romanian Revolution and overthrow of Ceausescu

International Relations

March 22: Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal. June 27: Convention 169 of the International Labor Organization relating to indigenous and tribal peoples. July 14-16: L’Arche summit, G7 meeting at La Défense. October 5: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. November 20: voted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. December 15: Lomé IV Convention between the EEC and 69 ACP.

Events

Africa

January 4: Gulf of Sirte incident. Two American F-14 Tomcats shoot down two Libyan MiG-23s. January 9: start of a “warning” strike by students and teachers in Benin. February 17: creation of the Arab Maghreb Union between Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia. March 1: the UN General Assembly adopts the UN plan for Namibia; on April 1, UNTAG takes over the administration of the country to control the withdrawal of South Africans from Namibia and organize elections. April 1-2: failed coup attempt against Hissène Habré in Chad. General Hassane Djamous, head of the armed forces, and Ibrahim Mahamat Itno, interior minister, are arrested. Idriss Déby fled to Sudan where he created the Patriotic Salvation Movement. April 2: snap legislative and presidential elections in Tunisia. April 9: An incident between Senegalese Soninke farmers from Diawara and Mauritanian Fulani herders from Sonko marks the beginning of the Senegalese-Mauritanian conflict. Ethnic clashes between Mauritanians and Senegalese. Looting of the property of many Mauritanian traders (about 300,000) operating in Senegal and of Senegalese (about 30,000) living in Mauritania. Sporadic military clashes took place until 1991 and diplomatic relations between the two states were severed on August 21 until April 23, 1992. May 24-26: Francophonie summit in Dakar. On the 24th, France announced the cancellation of all the public debt of 35 African countries. Declaration of Dakar on the issues of education and training, described as "strategic areas of intervention". 22 June: the declaration of Gbadolite (Zaire) establishes reconciliation in Angola between dos Santos and Jonas Savimbi in the presence of 18 heads of African state and proclaimed a ceasefire to come into effect on June 24. In August, the civil war resumes between MPLA government forces and UNITA. June 16: the economic crisis forces the People's Republic of Benin to sign its first structural adjustment plan with the IMF and the World Bank. Financial support is promised by donors from the international community in exchange for a political amnesty, vote

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