November 30, 2021
1991 is a common year starting on a Tuesday.
Gulf War: start of the Desert Storm offensive, which will lead to the neutralization of the Iraqi army;
Death of King Olav V of Norway, the last reigning European sovereign born before World War I;
February 28: end of the Gulf War, with a victory for the coalition.
July 30: American-Soviet summit, described as “the first post-Cold War summit” in Moscow.
July 31: signature in Moscow of Start 1 (strategic arms reduction talks) between the Soviet Union and the United States, providing for a 30% reduction in strategic nuclear weapons, that is to say of more than 5,500 km range but their number will drop from 12,081 to 10,395 for the United States and from 10,841 to 8,040 for the Soviet Union.
August 6: Tim Berners-Lee launches the World Wide Web, the world's first website.
September 17: The UN increases to 186 members with the admission of the two Koreas, the three Baltic States, Micronesia and the Marshalls.
December 20: founding of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
December 26: dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Burmese Aung San Suu Kyi.
January 13: victory of the opposition in the legislative elections in Cape Verde.
January 27: fall of the Somali government of General Siad Barre, defeated by the Congress of Unified Somalia (CSU) and replaced by rebel leader Ali Mahdi Muhammad. February 25-June 10: national conference in Congo.
March: President Momoh speaks out for multi-party politics in Sierra Leone
March 23: Sierra Leone civil war (ending January 18, 2002).
March 24: Nicéphore Soglo wins the presidential election in Benin against Mathieu Kérékou.
Riots in Bamako. In Mali, a military coup led by Amadou Toumani Touré ends Moussa Traoré's 23-year dictatorship.
New constitution in Gabon.
March 29: Amadou Toumani Touré establishes a “democratic transition” regime in Mali and takes over the chairmanship of the “Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People” (CTSP); rehabilitation of “historical figures of modern Mali.” Alpha Oumar Konaré will be democratically elected to the presidency in 1992. Cease-fire between the Malian government and the Tuareg rebellion.
April 12: multiparty system in Togo.
April 22: multiparty system in the Central African Republic.
April-May: political unrest in Cameroon.
May 8: Multiparty system in Guinea-Bissau.
May 18: civil war in Somalia. Former Somaliland unilaterally declares its independence. Clan Wars (1991-1996).
May 21 (Ethiopia): Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam gives up power after the victory of the Eritrean and Tigrayan rebels against the regular army.
May 28: Meles Zenawi, of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front is democratically elected president in Ethiopia.
May 31st :
Constitution adopting multipartyism in Rwanda
Angolan civil war: Signature of a peace agreement between the President of the People's Republic of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos and the head of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi. 2 June:
Abolition of the last apartheid laws in South Africa.
Democratic constitution in Burkina Faso.
June 3-5: Abuja conference: OAU members discuss the creation of an African economic community project to be developed in six phases by 2025.
June 16: for the first year, the Day of the African Child is celebrated in memory of the Soweto Massacre.
June: provisional government of the EPLF in Eritrea. 8 July - 28 August: national conference in Togo.
July 9: after 30 years of suspension, South Africa returns to the Olympic movement.
July 12: constitution establishing a multiparty system in Mauritania.
Opening in Bamako (Mal