1994

Article

November 30, 2021

1994 is a common year starting on a Saturday.

Territorial chronology

World

January 10: NATO summit. Partnership for Peace. January 14: Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin sign the Kremlin agreements. Ukraine joins the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. April 15: final act of the Uruguay Round of GATT, in Marrakech (1986-1994). 120 signatory countries: creation of the WTO (World Trade Organization) based in Geneva. The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) rules against states that violate the principle of free trade and competition. In contrast, transnational firms remain largely elusive. This virtual corporate impunity stems, for many, from the lack of an international legal definition of economic crimes and offenses.

Africa

January 10: The CEAO is replaced by the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA). January 17: 50% devaluation of the CFA franc. February 6: Cyprien Ntaryamira becomes President of the Republic of Burundi. February: clash in northeastern Ghana between Namumba and Konkomba. Emergency state. April 6 and following days, Rwanda: attack costing the lives of the Rwandan and Burundian presidents. Beginning of the genocide of Tutsi and Hutu moderated by Hutu extremists in Rwanda (end in July). Assassination of the Prime Minister and ten Belgian peacekeepers, constitution of the interim government by Hutu extremists, French and Belgian military operations to evacuate Western nationals. April 19: start of the Tutsi genocide in Butare (southern region of Rwanda) April 20: assassination of the former queen of Rwanda, Rosalie Gicanda by extremist Hutu soldiers April 21: Rwanda, the United Nations ratify the significant reduction in the number of blue helmets (Minuar). April 27: South Africa, the first multiracial elections give power to the ANC and Nelson Mandela is elected President of the Republic. Frederik de Klerk, vice-president. In addition, the flag is modified to symbolize the end of Apartheid. May 1: massacre of Tutsi in Nyundo cathedral. More than 500 people murdered. May 13: first massacres of Tutsi in Bisesero by the presidential guard, the Rwandan Armed Forces and Hutu militiamen. May 21: Opposition leader Bakili Muluzi defeats Hastings Kamuzu Banda in the presidential election of Malawi. Bakili Muluzi, President of Malawi (completed in 2004). June 22 (Rwanda): Operation Turquoise. French "military and humanitarian" intervention. June 27-30: Bisesero massacres in Rwanda. June 27: Meeting of a National Constitutional Conference in Nigeria, which is divided into 30 Federated States (1995). July 4 (Rwanda): capture of Kigali by the RPF and decree of the "ZHS" by the command of Operation Turquoise. End of the genocide and flight of the interim government, the FAR, the interahamwe and two million Hutus in Zaire in the days that followed. July 5 (Rwanda): France creates a "safe humanitarian zone" where many Hutus take refuge. 2nd half of July: outbreak of cholera in Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire. July 19 (Rwanda): constitution of the transitional government led by Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu. July 22 (Gambia): military coup; Captain Yahya Jammeh takes power. August 22 (Rwanda): end of Operation Turquoise and reinforcement of Minuar II. August 30: South Africa joins SADC. September 27: creation of the Rally of Republicans of Côte d'Ivoire. October 9: agreement between the Nigerien government and the Tuareg rebellion. November 8: resolution 955 of the United Nations Security Council which creates the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to try crimes of genocide and serious crimes

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