July 23 is the 204th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 205th when it is a leap year, then there are 161 remaining.
Its equivalent was usually 5 Thermidor of the French Republican/Revolutionary calendar, officially referred to as the day of the ram (the animal).
July 22 - July 23 - July 24
811: the Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I plunders the Bulgarian capital Pliska and seizes the treasure of Khan Kroum there.
1319: a fleet of Knights Hospitaller crushes a squadron of Turkish pirates at the Battle of Chios.
1632: more than 300 people leave Dieppe and emigrate to New France.
Jacques Necker arriving from Basel returns to Versailles and reinstalls his ministry. He regains control of Finance. His friends Montmorin and Saint-Priest, dismissed with him, returned to Foreign Affairs and the Maison du Roi.
The sixty Parisian districts are each invited to choose two commissioners to form the municipal administration of Paris.
1793: the Prussians recapture Mainz from France, following a 3-month siege.
1840: publication of the Act of Union, adopted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to create the Province of Canada.
1862: Henry Wager Halleck is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army during the Civil War.
1894: Japanese troops invade the royal palace in Seoul and overthrow the king of Korea.
1914: Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia, following the attack on Sarajevo.
1919: inaugural session of the Erzurum Congress, a congress organized by the Association for the Defense of the Eastern Provinces, during the Turkish War of Independence.
1942: entry into activity of the Treblinka extermination center.
1945: opening of the Pétain trial.
1952: Overthrow of the monarchy in Egypt.
1961: A ceasefire puts an end to the Bizerte crisis.
1963: France refuses to adhere to the Moscow treaty limiting nuclear tests.
1966: Saddam Hussein escapes, during a transfer to another prison.
1988: in Burma, General Ne Win leaves the head of the Socialist Program Party of Burma; it continues to play a role in the shadows.
1993: Agdam is taken by Nagorno-Karabakh forces.
1998: the Walloon Region fixes by decree (law) its feast day, its anthem, and its emblems.
2019: Boris Johnson is elected leader of the UK Conservative Party and nominated to replace Theresa May as Prime Minister.
2021: in Japan, in Tokyo, the Games of the XXXII Olympiad are officially opened by Emperor Naruhito, delayed for a year due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Arts, culture and religion
1304: the bishop of Cahors Raymond de Pauchel publicly declares in his cathedral that he considers the consuls and inhabitants of this city to be good and true Catholics, chaplains, priors and devotees.
1523: pilgrimage of the French royal family to Saint-Denis in full resumption of conflict with the imperialists after a defeat in Milan and the reversal of the constable (cf. July 24).
1888: first interpretation of the song of the Socialist International by a Lyre des Travailleurs choir gathered in the tavern A la Vignette in Lille.
Science and technology
1829: "The Typographer" precursor of the typewriter is patented by the American William Austin Burt (en).
1903: Ford sells its first automobile.
1904: appearance of the ice cream cone.
1927: inauguration of the first prefabricated housing in Germany.
1995: discovery of comet Hale-Bopp.
1999: launch of the space shuttle Columbia, commanded by Eileen Collins, as part of the STS-93 mission.
2015: announcement of the discovery of Kepler-452b, the first pl