4th July

Article

December 7, 2021

July 4 is the 185th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the 186th in the case of a leap year. There are 180 days left before the end of the year. It was generally the 16th day of the month of Messidor in the French Republican calendar, officially referred to as tobacco day. This is the approximate date of the passage of the Earth to its aphelion in our solar system. July 3 - July 4 - July 5

Events

4th century BC. AD 362 BC AD: Battle of Mantinea.

10th century

907: start of a battle in Bratislava.

12th century

1187: battle of Hattin.

13th century

1253: Battle of Westkapelle.

17th century

1617: arrival in New France of Louis Hébert and Marie Rollet, the first French settlers to settle in Canada. 1634: foundation of the city of Trois-Rivières, in New France (Quebec, Canada) by Laviolette.

18th century

1776: Declaration of independence of the United States of America.

20th century

1902: end of the American-Philippine war. 1946: independence of the Philippines. 1973: creation of the Caribbean Community. 1976: Entebbe raid. 1994: end of the genocide in Rwanda.

21st century

2004: laying of the foundation stone of One World Trade Center. 2005: the Deep Impact probe launches its SMART impactor on comet Tempel 1 (animation opposite). 2015: Tupou VI is crowned 6th King of Tonga.

Arts, culture and religion

1348: the Catholic Pope Clement VI makes public a bull in which he prohibits forcing the Jews to baptism. 1546: baptism of Elisabeth -Isabelle- de France, first daughter of the Dauphin Henri and Catherine de Medici, born April 2, 1545. 1862: during a ride on the Thames, Lewis Carroll imagines Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, to distract Alice Liddell and her sisters. 1872: an anti-Jesuit law prohibits the presence of Jesuit establishments on the soil of the German Empire within the framework of the Kulturkampf.

Science and technology

1054: explosion of a noticed supernova. 2012: announcement by CERN of the discovery of the Higgs boson. 2016: a Juno probe is put into orbit around the planet Jupiter.

Media

2016: the executive of the Flemish region of Belgium undertakes to switch from 70 to 100% of digital terrestrial radio (DTT) coverage of its territory by the end of that year.

Economy and society

1911: the summer begins with a heatwave that has already raged in North America and which in turn will strike 70 days in Western Europe (a year and a half after the record flooding of the Seine in January 1910 in Paris). 1987: the Rhône Assize Court recognizes Klaus Barbie guilty of seventeen crimes against humanity and sentences him to life imprisonment where he will die four years later. 2016: Deadly attacks by the Islamic State organization in Medina, Jeddah and Qatif in Saudi Arabia. 2017: general policy speech by the new French Prime Minister Édouard Philippe.

Births

17th century

1694: Louis-Claude Daquin, French musician († June 15, 1772).

18th century

1744: Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, German physician, naturalist and explorer († July 27, 1774). 1745: Benoît Mottet de La Fontaine, senior French official († April 30, 1820). 1756: Louis Marie Turreau, French soldier († December 10, 1816).

19th century

1807: Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian soldier, patriot and politician († June 2, 1882). 1816: Hiram Walker, American businessman († January 12, 1899). 1826: Stephen Foster, American composer († January 13, 1864). 1847: James Anthony Bailey, American circus director († April 11, 1906). 1868: Charles Binet-Sanglé, French military doctor and psychologist († November 14, 1941). Henrietta Swan Leavitt, American Astronomer

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