October 9


October 19, 2021

October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the 283rd in the case of a leap year. As such, it symbolizes the period of fossilization of the oldest living organisms first appearing on the Earth and in its waters, in the cosmic calendar of the astronomer Carl Sagan (in proportion already more than nine months after the Big bang of the 1st January). There are 83 days left until the end of the year. It was generally the eighteenth day of the month of Vendémiaire in the French Republican or Revolutionary calendar, officially called Buckwheat Day. October 8 - October 9 - October 10


1st century BC. AD -43: the city of Lugdunum (current Lyon) is founded by the proconsul of Gaul Lucius Munatius Plancus.

8th century

768: the brothers Carloman I and Charlemagne are both elected and crowned kings of the Franks.

12th century

1192: Richard the Lionheart re-embarks for England, ending the Third Crusade in the Holy Land.

13th century

1238: Jacques Ier of Aragon enters the city of Valence, capital of the kingdom of Valence.

16th century

1514: feasts relating to the remarriage by proxy of King Louis XII of France, widower of Anne of Brittany in second wedding, with Marie Tudor, young sister of King Henry VIII of England, celebrated in London on the previous August 13 then confirmed in Abbeville . 1594: in Sri Lanka, end of the campaign of Danture of the Portuguese against the kingdom of Kandy, surrender of the surviving Portuguese. The kingdom emerges strengthened from the countryside, it will remain independent until 1815.

17th century

1622: peace of Montpellier of King Louis XIII of France, who was unable to take this Huguenot stronghold. This Peace confirms the Edict of Nantes of 1598, but only authorizes two places of safety for Protestants, Montauban and La Rochelle. 1683: the King of France Louis XIV secretly marries Madame de Maintenon, as a second wedding.

18th century

1708: Russian victory, at the Battle of Lesnaya, during the Great Northern War. 1740: start of the Batavia massacre. 1760: the Russian and Austrian armies briefly occupy Berlin, during the Seven Years' War.

19th century

1801: Franco-Ottoman treaty, signed in Paris, which puts an end to hostilities between the two powers, within the framework of the war of the second coalition. 1806: battles of Saalbourg and Schleiz, the French forces of Bernadotte defeat the Prusso-Saxon allies. 1820: Guayaquil proclaims its independence from Ecuador. 1847: Sweden abolishes slavery in Saint-Barthélémy. 1854: start of the siege of Sébastopol (Crimean War). 1859: Marian apparitions from Green Bay to Champion (United States). Recognized by the Catholic Church in 2010. 1861: Battle of Santa Rosa Island, during the Civil War. 1864: Union victory at the Battle of Tom's Brook, during the Civil War.

20th century

1911: an accidental explosion precipitates the uprising of Wuchang. 1914: end of the siege of Antwerp, during the First World War. 1918: Frédéric-Charles de Hesse-Cassel is elected King of Finland. 1934: Peter II ascends the throne of Yugoslavia (see death below). 1962: independence of Uganda. 1970: proclamation of the Khmer Republic. 1975: Russian physicist Andreï Sakharov receives the Nobel Peace Prize. 1983: the President of South Korea, Chun Doo-hwan, escapes an attack in Yangon, Burma, which kills 21 in total, including the four ministers accompanying him.

21st century

2004: re-election of Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan. 2006: North Korea announces its first successful nuclear test. 2012: attack against Malala Yousafzai, future co-Nobel Peace Prize winner. 2016: start of a conflict in Rakhine State. 2019: in Syria, the Turkish army

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