English

Article

January 21, 2022

English (English in English; pronounced: /ˈɪŋ.ɡlɪʃ/) is an Indo-European Germanic language originating in England that has its roots in the languages ​​of northern Europe (homeland of the Angles, Saxons and of the Frisians) whose vocabulary was enriched and the syntax and grammar modified by Anglo-Norman French, brought by the Normans, then by French with the Plantagenêts. The English language is thus composed of approximately 29% of words of Norman and French origin, and more than two thirds of its vocabulary comes from French or Latin. English is also very influenced by the Romance languages, in particular by the use of the Latin alphabet as well as Arabic numerals. The de facto official language of the United Kingdom, Ireland and other islands of the British Archipelago (Isle of Man, Channel Islands), English is the mother tongue of all or part of the population, and depending on the case, the language or one of the official languages ​​of several countries, totally or partially from the former British settlement colonies, including the United States, Canada but it has nevertheless become, in part French, Australia and the New Zealand, which is united under the name of "Anglo-Saxon world", although there is no universal definition of this expression. It is also an official language or language of exchange in many countries from the former British Empire, even in the absence of a significant population of Anglo-Saxon origin (Kenya, Nigeria, Hong Kong, India, Pakistan, etc. .). Many countries whose official language is English are united in the Commonwealth (although for some it is not the sole official language). It is also one of the twenty-four official languages ​​of the European Union and one of the six official languages ​​and two working languages ​​- with French - of the United Nations (UN). English is the most spoken language in the world; as a mother tongue, it ranks third, after Chinese (Mandarin) and Spanish. Considered by many to be the predominant international language, it is the language most often taught as a foreign language around the world. It is also the most used language on the Internet.

History

English is a West Germanic language whose origin is found in the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to the island of Brittany by the Germanic tribes who came to settle there, and then strongly influenced, especially at the lexical level, by the languages settlers from Scandinavia, Normandy (Anglo-Norman French) and northern France, generally in the Middle Ages, then by modern French. As with other languages, borrowings from ancient Greek and Latin have steadily enriched the lexicon until today. The other Romance languages, as well as the dialects of the former British colonies, have influenced British English in a much less significant way, but continue to be used in their territories of origin. Traditionally, we distinguish: Old English (Ænglisc), from the 5th century to the middle of the 12th century; Middle English, from the middle of the 12th century to the beginning of the 16th century; nascent modern English (Early Modern English), or Elizabethan English, from the beginning of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century; Modern English (Modern English), from the end of the 17th century to the present. North, Oceania, Africa and Asia.

Classification and Accuracy

English is originally a Germanic language, a family within which the closest living languages

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