1970s

Article

January 21, 2022

The 1970s cover the period from January 1, 1970 to December 31, 1979.

Events

The 1970s ("seventies", in Frenglish) sounded the death knell for the period of growth of the "Glorious Thirties", with the decision of the United States to suspend the convertibility of the dollar (1971), the first oil shock following the war Yom Kippur (1973) and the second oil shock following the Iranian revolution (1979). The decade is marked by important political and social movements (sexual liberation of women), and by the awareness of the seriousness of ecological problems and the beginning of a new economic crisis. They also mark the strong comeback of liberal ideas (the “Chicago Boys” in Chile, Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom) and Islamists (Khomeini in Iran). In Canada, Quebec society was marked by the crisis of October 1970 which led to numerous political, economic and social reforms in Quebec. From the middle of the decade, there was some resurgence of the Cold War due to the relative decline of the United States which moved closer to China, while Soviet influence gained ground in Asia and Africa (Indochina , Angola, Ethiopia, Afghanistan). In Europe, the EEC went from six to nine members with the accession of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark, while Portugal, Greece and Spain embarked on the road to democracy.

Wars and Conflicts

The Biafra war ended in January 1970, after killing two million people in thirty months. “Black September” in Jordan (1970). Canadian military occupation, in Quebec during the October Crisis (1970) The Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 led to the independence of Bangladesh. The Israeli-Arab Yom Kippur War (between Israel, Egypt and Syria) led to the first oil shock (October 1973). The Turks occupy the northern part of the island of Cyprus (July-August 1974). The capture of Saigon by the Vietcong marks the end of the Vietnam War (April 1975). The Khmer Rouge carried out a veritable genocide in Cambodia, before being ousted from power by the Vietnamese in January 1979. The Angolan civil war began in 1975, with three rival liberation movements vying for power. Civil war broke out in Lebanon in April 1975. Syria and Israel intervened in the conflict. The Western Sahara War broke out in November 1975. French and Belgian troops intervene in Kolwezi (May 1978). Soviet troops intervene in Afghanistan (December 1979).

Geopolitics

United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm (1972). First enlargement of the European Economic Community (EEC) with the accession of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark (January 1, 1973). The Watergate scandal led to the resignation of US President Richard Nixon (August 9, 1974). On April 25, 1974, the Carnation Revolution led to the fall of the dictatorship in Portugal and paved the way for the decolonization of Mozambique and Angola. In Greece, the colonels' regime collapsed and democracy was restored on July 23, 1974. In Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed by the army on September 12, 1974. The first Chadian president François Tombalbaye was assassinated on April 13, 1975. In Spain, King Juan Carlos ascends the throne following the death of General Franco, which occurred on November 20, 1975. American President Richard Nixon went to Beijing in February 1972, but it was not until 1979 that real diplomatic relations were established between the United States and the People's Republic of China. Two particularly bloody military coups occur in Latin America, one establishing Augusto Pinochet's military rule in Chile in 1973

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