Argentine

Article

August 15, 2022

Argentina, in long form the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Argentina et República Argentina /reˈpuβlika aɾxenˈtina/), is a country in South America sharing borders with Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north. , Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast, and finally the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south. Its continental United States territory covers much of the Southern Cone. On May 25, 1810, during the May Revolution, the country no longer accepted being governed by a viceroy (governor) and created a local government, which swore allegiance to the King of Spain. Independence from Spain was definitively declared on July 9, 1816 at the Congress of Tucumán. The capital is Buenos Aires, the predominant language is Spanish, in its Rioplatense variant, the currency is the Argentine peso and the national religion is Catholicism. With an area of ​​2,791,810 km2, Argentina has a population density of 16 inhabitants per km2. Argentina is one of the countries known as the Southern Cone and among the countries of Latin America, it is, with Uruguay and Chile, the one where European culture is most assertive. Argentina is one of the most developed countries in Latin America. The country is also the third largest economy in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico, whether in nominal GDP or purchasing power parity (PPP). In 2019, the economy is in crisis, the automotive industry only operates at 15% of installed capacity, car sales are in freefall (-54% over one year), inflation reaches 54.7 % over one year. The government is requesting a loan from the IMF, which released in 2018 the payment of 56 billion dollars over three years in return for budget cuts. Nearly 300,000 jobs have been lost in three years and poverty is at its highest level in 20 years.

Origins of the name

The name "Argentina" (in French "Argentina") derives from the Latin name argentum which designated silver (plata and prata in Spanish). It was probably used by Venetian or Genoese navigators and its origin could be found in the silver gifts made by Amerindian peoples to European explorers, notably Sebastian Cabot, or in the ornaments they wore. Another explanation could be the legend of the Sierra de la Plata, legendary treasure where the Río de la Plata was supposed to lead. The name “Río de la Plata” appears in a Venetian atlas from 1536. Portuguese cartographer Lopo Homem was the first to use the term “Terra Argentea” on a map from 1554. The name "Argentina" was popularized by Martín del Barco's poem Centenera Argentina y Conquista del Rio de la Plata published in 1602. In 1860, "Argentina" became the official name of the Argentine Republic.

Geography

General Data

The total surface of Argentina is distributed as follows (except Antarctica): total: 2,766,891 km2; land: 2,736,691 km2; water: 30,200 km2.Argentina extends over 5,200 km (border with Chile) from north to south and 1,400 km from east to west. The territory can be divided into four distinct zones: the fertile plains of the pampas in the center of the country, the flat country of Patagonia in the south (extending over a large southern quarter of the country (28%), down to the Terre of Fire), the dry plains of the Gran Chaco in the north and finally the very high region of the Andes cordillera in the west along the border with Chile, including Mount Aconcagua culminating at 6,960 m. The highest point in Argentina — and in America — is Mount Aconcagua. The deepest depression in America, the Laguna del Carbón at 105 m below sea level, is also found in Argentina, in the province of Santa Cruz. The geographical center of the country is located in the province of La Pampa