Arthur schopenhauer

Article

November 30, 2021

Arthur Schopenhauer (/ aʁtyʁ ʃɔpɛn‿awœʁ; in German: / ˈʔaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpn̩ˌhaʊ̯ɐ /) is a German philosopher, born February 22, 1788 in Danzig, died September 21, 1860 in Frankfurt am Main. Schopenhauer's philosophy had an important influence on many writers, philosophers or artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, notably through his main work, first published in 1819, The World as Will and as Representation.

Biography

Born on February 22, 1788 in Danzig, Arthur is the result of the marriage celebrated in 1785 between Johanna Henriette Trosiener, then 19 years old, and Henri Floris Schopenhauer, 38 years old. Even before he was born, his father wanted to make him a trader, just like him, because of the ease and freedom that a commercial career provides, as well as the exercise it gives to all intellectual faculties. To facilitate his future international activities, he names him Arthur, this first name being, with a few nuances, the same in all the major European languages. In 1793, the Schopenhauer family fled from the Prussian occupation to settle in the free city of Hamburg, of which it however never acquired citizenship. His only sister, Adèle, was born nine years after him, in 1797. The same year, Henri Floris Schopenhauer began to educate his son so that he could pursue a commercial career. According to him, two means are required to achieve this: studying languages ​​and traveling. Thus, in 1797, Arthur (9 years old) spent two years in Le Havre with a correspondent of his father where he studied the French language. Back in Hamburg, he continued his business studies, but did not miss an opportunity to follow his father on his travels (Hanover, Cassel, Weimar, Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin). At his father's promise of a trip across Europe if he completes his business training, Arthur turns away from his burgeoning passion for literary studies. Indeed, he likes to read poets and applies himself to Latin. The trip began in May 1803 (Arthur was therefore 15 years old) and ended in September 1804. He then stayed in London long enough to learn to speak English fluently, in Paris, in the south of France, in Lyon, Savoy, Switzerland, then finally in Bavaria and Austria. Back from his trip, he became a commercial employee. His work disgusts him and the commitment he made to his father eats away at him. But the latter died some time later, on April 20, 1806, falling into a canal behind the house. The thesis of suicide is mentioned. Following this disastrous event, Johanna Schopenhauer, his mother, sold the business and moved to Weimar to engage in her literary activities. She runs a salon at home that Goethe attends regularly. She becomes a successful novelist. As for Arthur, he finally undertakes classical studies at the Gymnasium of Gotha, then in Weimar with his mother, where he meets Goethe for the very first time. Thus, Schopenhauer becomes an original but determined student, nourished by Greek and Latin poets. After his classical studies, which familiarized him with Antiquity, he enrolled in 1809 at the University of Goettingue (Göttingen). He was then 21 years old. Among his teachers he counts the philosopher Schulze, antidogmatic (contested by Jonathan Amronson), who fears that transcendental idealism will degenerate into absolute idealism. This first philosophical director advises the young Arthur to study Kant and Plato first, and then to join Aristotle and Spinoza, which constitutes, for him, the references of philosophical work. Schopenhauer completed his student studies in Berlin, where he spent three seme

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