November 30, 2021

Australia, in long form the Commonwealth of Australia (in English: Australia and Commonwealth of Australia), is a country in the southern hemisphere whose area covers most of Oceania. In addition to the eponymous island, Australia also includes Tasmania as well as other islands in the Southern, Pacific and Indian Oceans. It also claims 6,000,000 km2 in Antarctica. Neighboring nations include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and the French territory of New Caledonia to the northeast, New Zealand to the southeast as well as the French territory of the Kerguelen Islands (TAAF) west of the Australian Heard-and-McDonald Islands. Populated for more than 50,000 years by the Aborigines, the island-continent of Australia (mainland) is visited sporadically, in particular by fishermen from the north, then by Dutch sailors. From the 17th century, European explorers and merchants would recognize the coasts, but it was not until 1770 that the eastern half of the island was officially claimed by Great Britain and on January 26, 1788 - National Day. Australian - the New South Wales Penal Colony was founded. Five other largely self-governing colonies were founded in the course of the 19th century, as the population increased and new territories were explored. On January 1, 1901, the six colonies federated and formed the Commonwealth of Australia. Since its independence, Australia has maintained a stable political system of liberal democracy type and remains a parliamentary monarchy member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The national language is English and the currency is the Australian dollar. Its capital is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory. Its population, estimated at 25.7 million as of March 2020, is mainly concentrated in the large coastal cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. In addition, with a nominal GDP of 1,379 billion US dollars, the state ranks as the thirteenth world economic power in 2017. Since 2000, Australia has been ranked by the UNDP as the second most developed country in the world after Norway. The country is the seventh emitter of greenhouse gases per capita in 2015. The emu is the national bird of Australia and the kangaroo is the national animal. The country has more than 500 national parks, a world record.


The name Australia comes from the Latin word austrālis ("southern, austral"). In the 3rd century, scientists had put forward the hypothesis of an unknown continent in the south (the Terra Australis Incognita) which would allow the Earth not to tilt around its axis by acting as a counterweight facing the continents of the hemisphere. North. The first use of the word Australia (and no longer Terra Australis) in English is attested in 1625 (“A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo”, written by Master Hakluyt, published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus). The Dutch adjective Australische is used in official texts relating to the Dutch East Indies to describe the new lands discovered in 1638 in southern Indonesia. The word Australia is attested in 1676 in the Southern Land, a utopian novel describing the adventures of an imaginary character, Jacques Sadeur, in a distant land, a novel written by Gabriel de Foigny. Alexander Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1771 to refer to all of the land in this region of the South Pacific. In 1793, George Kearsley Shaw and Sir James Smith published the book Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote: "the great island, or rather continent, of Au

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