Boxing

Article

May 23, 2022

English boxing, also called the noble art, is a combat sport in which two opponents, of the same weight category and the same sex, meet in a ring, wearing padded gloves to limit the risk of cuts, and s exchanging punches, landed in the face and chest. The fight is divided into time intervals, the rounds, or times in French, separated by a minute of rest announced by a bell where the pugilist can be advised and treated if necessary. Whether in Olympic or professional boxing, boxers try to avoid their opponent's punches while trying to land them. Points are awarded for each shot considered clean, powerful and precise. At the end of the fight, the boxer with the most points is declared the winner. Victory can also be achieved if a fighter puts his opponent out of action (by knockout or KO), that is to say unable to get up and resume the fight after the count of ten seconds of the arbitrator. A fighter is also declared the winner if his injured opponent cannot continue the fight (technical knockout or TKO).

History

In Antiquity

Some reliefs prove that fights similar to boxing already existed in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. Other reliefs from the 2nd millennium BC attest to the presence of bare-handed combat in Assyria and Babylon as well as among the Hittites in Asia Minor. The first use of gloves dates back to the Minoan Civilization (1500-900 BC) and the Giants of Mount Prama in Sardinia (2000-1000 BC). Boxing was first practiced as a sport in its own right in ancient Greece during the Panhellenic Games at Olympia, Delphi, the Isthmus and Nemea. Indeed, boxing (appeared in 688 BC) and pankration (638 BC) are similar to boxing. The first only allows punches while the second also includes the use of kicks and wrestling holds. The sole objective of these two sports is to knock out the opponent in a single round. The practice of boxing continued in the Etruscan dynasty, imported from the Greek kingdoms. Many documents show pugilists throughout the reign of the Etruscans, especially during the funerary games, the ludi. Ancient boxing will reach its peak in Rome, heir to Greek and Etruscan culture. Boxing matches take place in Greece at the Olympic Games. Pugilists wear cestas, leather straps covered with iron bands. Boxing and pankration were abolished with the Olympic Games in 394 by Emperor Theodosius I, the Olympic facilities were set on fire by his grandson Theodosius II.

Boxing in the 18th century

Boxing reappears in the 18th century; the matches were then organized by bettors who took boxing as a model. It is at the time little regulated and is practiced with bare hands. The first great bare-knuckle boxing champion was master-at-arms James Figg in 1719. His pupil, Jack Broughton, won almost 400 fights until he accidentally killed his opponent. Traumatized, he codified the rules of boxing, then the Marquess of Queensberry with the help of John Graham Chambers, made it compulsory to wear protective gloves and prohibited fights at the finish, which also prohibited knocking the opponent to the ground .

Advent of the rules

The Marquess of Queensberry's rules, written in 1865, emphasized agility rather than strength. These new rules prohibited combat with bare hands, clinch, suffocation, blows when the opponent is powerless and the fight to the finish (combat that only ends with the abandonment