November 30, 2021

Bulgaria, in long form the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България and Република България, transliteration: Bǎlgarija and Republika Bǎlgarija), is a country in Southeastern Europe located in the Balkans. It is bordered by the Black Sea to the east, to the south by Greece and Turkey, to the north by the Danube and Romania, to the west by Serbia and North Macedonia. Its capital is Sofia. Bulgaria roughly covers ancient Thrace. The first vestiges of civilization on its territory date from the end of the Chalcolithic around 4600 BC. J. C. The Slavs settled there in the 6th century and adopted Greek rite Christianity. The Proto-Bulgarians founded in 680-681 the “Bulgarian Khanate of the Danube”, one of the successor states of Greater Bulgaria. Tengrists, they also adopted Christianity in 864. The “First Empire” thus founded owes its name to the Proto-Bulgarians and its faith to the Greeks: on these bases, it carried out in the Middle Ages the first and oldest civilization and adopted its language to other Slavic peoples and thanks to its influence and thanks to the Cyrillic script its influence is strengthened and it is one of the legacies. From 1018 to 1185 the country became part of the Byzantine Empire, but then reborn from its ashes, more brilliant and even more extensive since it included in the 12th century present-day Bulgaria, North Macedonia, West Macedonia, eastern Serbia, Wallachia and Moldavia (territories which will keep the liturgy and their language until the 18th century. After 1371, this “Second Empire” is divided into several principalities (tzarates of Vidin and Tarnovo, despotate of Dobroudja, principality of Wallachia, Slavic principalities Macedonian), which fell under Turkish Ottoman rule at the end of the century. After a series of revolts during the 19th century, a large state of Bulgaria was defined in the Treaty of San Stefano in 1878, but the Congress of Berlin put an end to this dream by creating two small Bulgarian principalities which, despite the reluctance of the Western powers, manage to unite in 1885 in a kingdom which makes recognize its independence in 1908. To try to find its borders of San Stefano, Bulgaria allies with Germany during the two world wars. In 1946, it was integrated into the “Eastern bloc” which broke up in 1990. It has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 1996, of NATO since 2004, of the European Union since 2007 and it has been chaired since 2017 by a pro-Russian Euro-skeptic president. Bulgaria is a parliamentary and democratic republic with a high Human Development Index (0.782).


It is possible that the Slavonic name блъгаринъ blŭgarinŭ transcribes the Old Turkish bŭlgar (meaning "agitated, energetic, disturbing"). The current Turkish language closest to Proto-Bulgarian is Chuvash Чӑваш. The name bŭlgar designated the Proto-Bulgarians, a cavalier people from the Pontic steppe and whose origins are, it seems, multiple, partly Iranian with Alan components, but above all Turkish with Koutrigoures, Utigoures, Saragurans components, Khazars, Pechenegs and Coumans.


Bulgaria is located in south-eastern Europe, with 1,808 km of land borders (Romania 608 km; Greece 494 km; Serbia 318 km; Turkey 240 km; North Macedonia 148 km). The length of the coastline is 354 km and the altitude rises from 0 m (the Black Sea coast) to 2,925 m (Mount Mousala). The main feature of the country is its division into bands of mountains and plains oriented east-west. From north to south follow one another the Danubian plateau, the Balkan massif (Stara planina), North Thrace, the Rila massif and the Rhodope massif. The eastern part, near the Black Sea, is made up of hills

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