Hindu calendar

Article

January 21, 2022

The Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar which has undergone geographical modifications: some Indian states have their own version and Pakistan calls it the desi or native calendar. The first day of year zero in the Hindu calendar is January 23, 3102 BC. J.-C. of the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

History

The Hindu calendar dates at least from the time of the Rig-Veda which mentions its months and days. It is closely related to Hindu astrology, the jyautisha which prescribes its aspects. After the Vedic period, scholars such as Âryabhata (5th century), Varahamihira (6th century) or Bhāskara (12th century) contributed to its enrichment. The authoritative text on calendrical matters is the Sūrya Siddhānta which is thought to have been written in the tenth century. The traditional Vedic calendar correlates the first month of the year (agrahayan from agra, "first" and ayan "journey [of the sun], equinox") with the vernal equinox and the crossing of the sun and the celestial equator in the vernal point, then located around Lambda Orionis. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, the vernal point is now in the constellation of Pisces and corresponds to the month of Chaitra. It is the phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes which has led to successive calendar reforms where different regions choose a diverging month as the starting point of the year. The change of the vernal equinox by almost four months between agrahayan and chaitra, in sidereal terms, allows us to think that the nomenclature of the months originated around the 4th or 5th millennium BC. J.-C. since the complete turn of the axis of rotation of the Earth takes place in 25,800 years.

Main sub-divisions

Uniquely, the Hindu calendar has a zero year and counts the years that have passed, as one does to mark the age of a human being, and not in progress. Remember that we owe the creation of the concept of zero and the so-called Arabic numerals to Indian mathematicians, and the majority of mathematical sources subsequently taken up by the Arabs.

Four eras

The Hindu calendar distinguishes four main ages, the yugas: the Satya Yuga (“age of truth”) corresponds to a golden age and the presence of the gods on Earth, followed by Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. The Kali Yuga ("age of vice") begins on the first day of the Hindu calendar (January 23 -3102 Gregorian).

Sixty Year Cycles

The eras follow a sexagesimal system and are, like the hours and the minutes, divided into cycles of sixty years which are repeated without interruption. Each of the years has its own name in the cycle:

Months, leap months and lost months

This lunisolar calendar has twelve lunar months: Chaitra Vaishākh Jyaishtha Āshādha Shravana Bhādrapad Ashwin Kartik Mārgashīrsha pause Magh PhālgunNorth Indian calendars generally start the month with the full moon (purnimanta or gauna mana), with the south preferring the new moon (amanta or mukhya mana) to start the month. It also has twelve solar months aligned with the seasons: Mesh - March/April - Aries Vrushabh - April/May - bull Mithun - May/June - Gemini Kark - June/July - cancer Simha - July/August - lion Kanya - August/September - Virgo Tula - September/October - Libra Vrushchik - October/November - scorpio Dhanu - November/December - Sagittarius Makar - December/January - Capricorn Kumbha - January/February - Aquarius Meen - February/March - Pisces As we have seen, the beginning of the solar and lunar year corresponds to the spring equinox. The lunar month whose full moon is closest to the day of the vernal equinox is chaitra. The other lunar months follow. An intercalary lunar month is added every 32 months and so, it then takes the

INSERT INTO `wiki_article`(`id`, `article_id`, `title`, `article`, `img_url`) VALUES ('NULL()','Calendrier_hindou','Hindu calendar','An intercalary lunar month is added every 32 months and so, it then takes the','')