November 30, 2021

Chile, in the long form Republic of Chile (in Spanish Chile and República de Chile) is a country in South America sharing its borders with Peru and Bolivia to the north on the one hand, and Argentina to the northeast , to the east and south-east on the other hand, and whose territory forms a narrow strip stretching from the Atacama Desert to Cape Horn. Easter Island, located 3,000 km from Valparaíso in the Pacific Ocean, has been part of Chile since 1888. The country's area is 756,102 km2. The government also claims possession on the Antarctic continent: the Chilean Antarctic Territory corresponds to longitudes 53 ° W and 90 ° W and is located south of the sixty-fifth parallel south. The capital of Chile is Santiago. Chile is one of the so-called Southern Cone countries and among the countries of Latin America, it is the one where European culture is most asserted, along with Argentina and Uruguay. Chile is the most developed country in Latin America (in 2010, its human development index was 0.895). It is also, in 2010, the least corrupt country in Latin America, and one of the most democratic. The country's official language is Chilean Spanish, but Native American languages ​​such as runa simi, mapudungun or aymara are also spoken, and a Polynesian language, vânaga rapanui on Easter Island. None of these languages, however, has official status. Chile has one of the five Mediterranean ecoregions of the world; its temperate winters and hot, dry summers provide ideal conditions for agriculture and other productive activities. The country is however strongly threatened by global warming and has lost at least 37% of its water resources since the early 1990s. The national currency is the peso (CLP, locally $). On January 11, 2010, Chile became a member of the OECD. In 2016, Chile was the fourteenth most unequal country in the world.


Many assumptions have been made about the origin of the country's name. According to one of them, the conquistadors who settled in Peru called the southern region the Valley of Chile. Many Hispanic proper names come from local names of rivers (Peru for río Virú, Lima for río Rimac). The name of the country may be linked to that of the river that crosses the city of Arequipa in southern Peru, the Rio Chile. According to Juan Ignacio Molina, the name comes from trih o chi, a term used to refer to a bird with yellow spots on its wings. According to historian Ricardo Latcham, the name comes from a group of Native Americans (the Mitimaes) captured by the Incas, who came from an area of ​​Peru where there was a river with that name. Another anonymous theory maintains that the origin is Aymara because the Inca Tupac Yupanqui had given this name to the lands conquered in the south of the Inca Empire, up to the valley of Aconcagua (meaning "frozen" or "where the earth ends ”in Aymara). However, the name of the country has nothing to do with the Spanish word chile for chili.


Pre-Columbian period

Research shows that the first populations to have inhabited the country would have arrived around 35,000 BC. AD, Pleistocene period for the prehistoric site of "Monte Verde I" and around 15,000 BC. AD for the site of "Monte Verde II" (end of the Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene, towards the end of the Upper Paleolithic). Pre-Hispanic Chile was populated by various Native American peoples who settled both in the Andes mountain range and on the coast. In the northern part of the country, the Aymaras and Atacaméniens began around the 11th century AD to cultivate the land like the Incas (terraced cultivation on the mountainside with

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