December 1934


January 23, 2022


Alberto Giacometti exhibition in New York. 1st December : José Luis Tejada Sorzano, President of Bolivia (end in 1936). Lázaro Cárdenas, populist president of Mexico (end in 1940). : He succeeded until 1940 in rooting the loyalty of the popular strata to the revolutionary regime thanks to radical populism (Sesenio). He strengthened the presidency and consolidated the state against caudillos such as Plutarco Elías Calles who dominated the period 1924-1934. Cárdenas relaunched land distributions: from 1934 to 1940, 18 million ha benefited 800,000 peasants through the traditional institution of the ejido, a collective property structure that distributed plots of land in usufruct to families. irrigation works are launched, communication routes built and credits granted. Assassination in Leningrad of the secretary of the Central Committee of the Soviet CP Sergei Kirov. Stalin seized this opportunity to trigger a massive purge of party cadres suspected of opposing the regime. Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev are the first victims.December 4: Akan National Park is founded on the island of Hokkaidō, Japan.December 5: Pierre Laval, Minister of Foreign Affairs signs in Geneva with Maxim Litvinov a protocol for the strict respect of the Eastern Pact. Border incident between Italian Somalia and the Empire of Ethiopia which decides to bring the conflict before the SDN. December 10: the Belgian Henri De Man exposes in Paris his economic planist theses, adopted by the Belgian workers' party. December 25: Sentenced to death for the murder of her father and the attempted murder of her mother on October 12, Violette Nozière is pardoned. His sentence is commuted to life imprisonment. December 27: Persia changes its name to Iran. December 29: The Empire of Japan denounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and renounces limiting its armaments. Rapid military and naval rearmament of Japan. Fourteen "Zinovievist" defendants, accused of Kirov's assassination, were sentenced to death and executed in the Soviet Union. Two-thirds of the members of the Central Committee were executed between 1934 and 1938, more than half of the senior officers of the Red Army were arrested between 1936 and 1938).


December 2: Tarcisio Bertone, Italian religious, Cardinal Secretary of State of the Roman Curia since September 15, 2006. December 3: Viktor Gorbatko, Soviet cosmonaut († May 17, 2017). December 18 – Boris Volynov, Soviet cosmonaut. December 19 : Pratibha Patil, Indian politician, current president of India. December 20: Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, Indonesian Cardinal, Archbishop of Jakarta. December 28 – Maggie Smith, British actress.


December 9: Alceste De Ambris, Italian politician and revolutionary trade unionist. (° September 15, 1874). December 26: Joseph-Elzéar Bernier, Arctic explorer. December 31: Francis Bourne, British Cardinal, Archbishop of Westminster (° March 23, 1861).

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