August 15, 2022

Europe is a territory conventionally considered as a continent, bounded to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the Denmark Strait, and to the north by the Arctic Ocean. Its southern limit is marked by the Strait of Gibraltar which separates it from Africa, while the straits respectively of the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles mark its border with Western Asia. Its eastern limit, set by Peter the Great at the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caucasus is the limit traditionally retained, but remains, for lack of clear and precise separation, the subject of controversy according to which a certain number of countries are or are not to be included in the European continent. Geographically, it can also be considered part of the supercontinents of Eurasia and Afro-Eurasia. In its most common sense, the European continent covers an area of ​​about 10 million km2 and has a population of about 743 million: Europeans. Five major geographical regions can be distinguished: Western Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Northern Europe. Europe has a diversity of climates: a temperate climate over most of its surface, due to the influence of the North-East Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and a continental-type climate to the east of the Eastern Poland. It also experiences a cold oceanic climate, even polar, in its northernmost regions, and a humid subtropical climate in the Balkans around the Black Sea. Watered by many streams and rivers, the continent is not under water stress. Europe is home to great biodiversity and has been a pioneer in environmental issues. The settlement has been carried out continuously for 1.8 or 2 million years, glacial and interglacial cycles creating periods of geographical isolation at the origin of a differentiation of the ancient forms of the genus Homo on the continent at from a common species that appeared in Africa. Then comes Sapiens, also born in Africa, which replaces the species of European origin that is Neanderthal, and “all the other humanities” from 70,000 years before the common era. The European population became sedentary between 7,500 and 8,000 years BC, through the effect of the diffusion of populations and techniques that appeared on the Anatolian plateau around 11,000 years BC and practiced the agriculture from 5,000 BC Linguistic and archaeological hypotheses as well as recent genetic studies support the thesis that the entire continent was populated by populations from eastern Europe who would be the speakers of Proto-Indo-European, the mother tongue of almost all European languages. The Germanic peoples appeared 2,000 years BC in northern Europe, the Celtic peoples extending from 1,200 years BC over most of the territory, from the basin from the Carpathians to the east of France. But it is Greece, with its brilliant civilization of the Classical period (5th – 4th centuries BC), which must be considered the cultural cradle of Europe. After the Hellenistic period, Europe saw Rome begin its expansion in the 4th century BC. BC and reach its peak in the second century. The continent was then divided between the Roman world and that of the barbarians (Celtic Picts, Germans and Slavs). The Roman influence is part of the culture, via the Latin language, as well as in the use of space via the Roman roads and the urbanization, on a vast territory bounded to the north by Hadrian's wall and to east by the Rhine and the Danube, and which also extends into Africa and Asia. Europe is thus the cradle of Greco-Roman civilization, which gave birth to Western civilization. The Christiani