Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 in Sarrat – September 28, 1989 in Honolulu) was a Filipino lawyer and statesman, President of the Philippines from December 30, 1965 to February 25, 1986 and Prime Minister from 1978 to 1981.
After having fought during the Second World War, he became a lawyer before being elected to the House of Representatives and then to the Senate. He was elected president in 1965 and re-elected in 1969. It was during this term that he declared martial law in 1972 establishing a dictatorial regime. He put an end to it in 1981 and was re-elected president. His popularity fell due to the country's economic crisis and the assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. in 1983, as well as corruption charges. Marred by fraud, the presidential election - which was held at the same time as the February 1986 revolution - led to the end of his regime. He then fled into exile in Hawaii, where he died three years later.
With his wife Imelda Marcos, he embodies the corruption and extravagance of the dictatorship. According to the Presidential Commission on Good Government, their family stole from the country between 5 and 10 billion US dollars. His son, Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos Jr., is elected president in 2022.
Ferdinand Marcos was born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. He is the son of Mariano Marcos, a lawyer, and Josefa Quetulio Edralin, a teacher. The youngest of four children, he is of Filipino, Chinese and Japanese descent. He begins primary education in the school of Sarrat, then is transferred to Shamrock, and finally, to the elementary school Ermita, when his father is elected deputy to the Philippine congress. He finished primary education in 1929.
He served in the Philippine reserve troops as a lieutenant from 1937. The same year, while still a freshman law student at the University of the Philippines, he was accused of murdering MP Julio Nalundasan ( en), a political opponent of his father, shot dead in his home by a sniper, on September 20, 1935. Along with his brother-in-law, Quirino Lizardo, he was sentenced to death in November 1939, but presented his case on appeal before the Philippine Supreme Court, and was acquitted the following year, by decision of Associate Justice José P. Laurel. In college, he was a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, an ancient Asian Greek fraternity of letters. After graduating with honors in Latin in 1939, he was admitted to the bar and the same year became the Filipino specialist in legal regularity. Between 1939 and 1941, he completed his learning of the English language, which he always mastered badly. In addition to English, he speaks Tagalog, his mother tongue, and Spanish.
Ferdinand Marcos was mobilized as a second lieutenant in 1941 and participated in the fighting and then in the resistance movement against the Japanese occupier.
President of the Philippines
After the war, he joined the liberal party and gradually rose through the ranks. He was elected deputy, then senator, then became president of the Senate before being appointed head of his party, which he left in 1964, the year before the presidential election. He joined the nationalist party of which he became the leader and won the election by 674,000 votes. The population has high hopes for this president. Marcos sets up an agrarian reform to modernize the agricultural sector, but does nothing to fight against the inequalities and poverty affecting small farmers. At the same time, the most prosperous sectors were not affected by the reforms and remained in the hands of clans or families devoted to Marcos. Nevertheless, in the economic field, the reforms of Marcos are a success and the country is experiencing a real take-off. Isle