October 28, 2021

France (), in long form since 1875 the French Republic (), is a sovereign transcontinental state whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and whose overseas territory is located in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as well as 'in South America. It is the only country in the world to span thirteen time zones. The country has land borders with Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and the two principalities of Andorra and Monaco in Europe, to which are added the land borders with Brazil , Suriname and the Netherlands in the Americas. France has important maritime facades on the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, allowing it to benefit from the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France is a unitary constitutional republic with a semi-presidential regime. The motto of the Republic has been since 1875 "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" and its flag consists of the three national colors: blue, white, red. Its national anthem is La Marseillaise, a patriotic song inherited from the French Revolution. Its constitutive principle is democracy: "government of the people, by the people and for the people". Its capital is Paris and its official language has been French since 1539, replacing Latin. Its currencies have been the euro since 2002 in most of the country and the Pacific franc in its territories in the Pacific Ocean. France takes its name from the Franks, the Germanic people who established the first foundations of their state on the foundations of Roman Gaul. It is over the centuries, through wars, political marriages and sovereign unions, that this monarchical and Catholic State will gradually build up around itself a real federation of provinces, which will eventually crystallize into a single nation under the effect of a policy of administrative and cultural standardization, brought to a conclusion by the French Revolution and the end of the feudal regime. From the middle of the 16th century to the middle of the 20th century, it had a vast colonial empire. From the 1950s, she was one of the players in the construction of the European Union. Second European army behind Russia, fourth nuclear and space power in the world, fifth world military power, one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and a member of NATO, France is also a member of the G7, G20, the Council of Europe, the euro area, the Schengen area, the Indian Ocean Commission, the Pacific community, and is home to the headquarters of the Council of Europe, UNESCO , the OECD, etc. It thus exerts a notable influence in political, economic, military and cultural matters, in Europe and in the rest of the world, it is ranked in 2019 at the world rank of the index Soft Power 30 thanks to its vast diplomatic scope, its wealth cultural heritage and the strong international mastery of the President of the Republic. The only country in the world to exercise its sovereignty over territories spread over four oceans and two continents, it plays an important geopolitical role at the global level, thanks to an extensive network of embassies and consulates, the second in the world behind that of States United, and it has military bases on all continents and the third largest nuclear military power in the world. Due to its vast territory spread over the whole planet, France is also one of the leading countries in the world for the variety of its maritime environments and their biodiversity France is, with a nominal GDP of 2 938 billion dollars US in 2021 according to the IMF, the third largest European economy behind Germany and the United Kingdom, as well as the seventh largest economy

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