Article

November 28, 2021

Greece, also called Hellas or Frenchized in Hellad, long form the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελλάδα / Elláda, / eˈlaða /, or officially Ελληνική Δημοκρατία / Ellinikí Dimokratía, [Ancient Greek katocrat kat et et); Hellás), is a country in Southern Europe and the Balkans. With an area of ​​131,957 km2 for just under eleven million inhabitants, the country shares land borders with Albania, Northern Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey and maritime borders with Cyprus, Albania. , Italy, Libya, Egypt and Turkey (the latter is the source of Greco-Turkish litigation in the Aegean Sea). The Ionian Sea to the west and the Aegean Sea to the east, parts of the Mediterranean Sea, frame the country whose fifth of the territory consists of more than 9,000 islands and islets of which nearly 200 are inhabited. In addition, 80% of its territory consists of mountains, the highest of which is Mount Olympus, the summit of which culminates at 2,917 m. Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, home of the arts (theater, architecture), politics (Athens is the cradle of democracy), philosophy (Stoicism, Epicureanism, Aristotelianism) and science (mathematics, physics, medicine). Ancient Greece bequeathed a colossal cultural and linguistic heritage to Europe. Greece is the heir to a rich and no less eventful long history. Ancient Greece extended its influence over the entire Mediterranean basin, from city-states to Roman Greece. During late antiquity, the Byzantine Empire survived the fall of Rome. Crusades and incessant wars led to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Greece came under Ottoman influence for nearly four centuries. The Ottoman conquest, however, did not extinguish Greek influence in the field of trade and culture. The Greeks actively participated in the Enlightenment with the Neo-Hellenic Enlightenment movement. At the same time, Western Europe is rediscovering Greek culture and a strong passion for "everything to do with Greece" is growing: Philhellenism. The ideals of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic period help to nurture the national spirit. On January 1, 1822 of the Julian calendar, the Hellenic elites gathered in a national assembly at Epidaurus proclaimed the independence of Greece from the Sublime Gate. Nine years later, after a war of independence, the Kingdom of Greece was recognized by the London Protocol (1830). The Kingdom of Greece was built into a modern state thanks to the policies of Ioánnis Kapodístrias. However, independent Greece of 1830 is limited to the Peloponnese and Attica. The country then sought throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to unify the Greek world: this is the Great Idea. Othon I and Queen Amelie are the first rulers. They worked for the creation of a national university in 1835 in Athens, beautifying the capital by building new neoclassical style buildings (Academy of Athens, National Library, Royal Palace). The events of 1843 make the country a constitutional monarchy. In the second half of the 19th century, Greece truly entered the Industrial Revolution. In 1869, the first railway line was built between the port of Piraeus and the center of Athens and then developed across the Peloponnese and Thessaly. In 1896, under the impetus of Pierre de Coubertin and in the continuity of the 1859 Olympics of Evangelos Zappas, the first Olympic competitions took place in 1896. On this occasion, the Athenian capital acquired new infrastructures: Zappéion, Panathenaic Stadium. The first half

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