Syrian Civil War

Article

October 19, 2021

The Syrian Civil War - or Syrian Revolution - is an armed conflict that has been ongoing since 2011 in Syria. It begins in the context of the Arab Spring with mostly peaceful demonstrations in favor of democracy against the Baathist regime led by President Bashar al-Assad. Brutally repressed by the regime, the protest movement gradually turned into an armed rebellion. Many belligerents are participating in the conflict, which has gone through several phases. Most of the first insurgent groups were structured around the Free Syrian Army (FSA), which was founded in July 2011. The political opposition in exile formed the Syrian National Council (CNS) in September 2011 then the Coalition. National Opposition and Revolutionary Forces (CNFOR) in November 2012. In 2012 and 2013, the rebels seized most of northern and eastern Syria, but the regime of Bashar el- Assad is resisting in the south and west of the country. The opposition obtains funding and weapons from Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Jordan, the United States and France. But the ASL is gradually supplanted in several regions by Sunni or Salafist Islamist groups, such as Ahrar al-Cham or Jaych al-Islam, or by jihadist Salafist groups, such as the Front al-Nosra, recognized in 2013 as the branch. Syrian al-Qaeda. The Syrian regime is for its part unwaveringly supported by Iran, which provides it with funding to circumvent international sanctions and which, from the start of the conflict, dispatched officers from the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and dozens of Shiite Islamist militias who had come. from Lebanon, Iraq or Afghanistan, such as Hezbollah, the Badr Organization or the Fatimid Division. In 2012, another actor, the Democratic Union Party (PYD), the Syrian wing of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), took control of the regions with its armed wing, the People's Protection Units (YPG). Kurds, in northern Syria. The balance of power is upset by the appearance in Syria of the Salafist jihadist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) - later renamed Islamic State (IS) - which in 2014 comes into conflict with all the other belligerents , seizes eastern Syria, as well as northwestern Iraq, and proclaims the restoration of the caliphate. In September 2014, led by the United States, an international coalition formed against the Islamic State began to carry out bombings in Syria and decided to support the YPG. With American support, the Kurds won their first victory in Kobane in January 2015, formed an alliance with Arab groups in October 2015 which took the name of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and launched a campaign against the jihadists which ended in October 2017 to the fall of Raqqa, the Syrian "capital" of ISIS. Turkey is also intervening militarily in Syria: first against the Islamic State in 2016 and 2017, before attacking the SDF in 2018 because of their links with the PKK. For its part, Russia entered the Syrian conflict in September 2015 by intervening militarily to support the Syrian regime. This intervention gave the advantage to the loyalist camp: the Syrian army and its allies won decisive victories in Aleppo in December 2016, in Homs in May 2017, in Deir ez-Zor in November 2017, in Ghouta in May 2018 and in Deraa in July 2018. As it continued over time, the Syrian conflict became at the same time a civil war, a sectarian war and a proxy war. Since March 2011, the conflict has killed around 500,000 people, according to estimates from various NGOs. Chemical weapon attacks and numerous massacres, war crimes and crimes against humanity have been co

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