October 28, 2021

Hatred is a personal feeling of very strong loathing, hostility, or loathing towards something or someone. It can lead to malicious behavior or acts, or even to murder.


In philosophy

The Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset defines the nature of hatred: “To hate is to kill virtually, to destroy with intention, to suppress the right to live. To hate someone is to feel irritation just because of their existence, it is to want their radical disappearance. " It specifies its modalities: “Hatred secretes a virulent and corrosive juice. […] Hatred is annulment and virtual assassination - not a one-shot assassination; to hate is to assassinate relentlessly, to erase the hated being from existence. "

In psychology

In psychoanalysis

The psychoanalyst Marie-Claude Defores considers hatred as a force that is deliberately destructuring and dehumanizing, the main weapon of perversion: "It is important to distinguish aggression, which is an impulse for life, from hatred, which is a force of depersonalization. … Hatred can take the most socialized forms; it refuses the new, turns towards the past, produces repetition and depersonalizes. " Going in the same direction, Heitor de Macedo states: “Hatred does not catch the truth, it encloses it inside a motionless thought where nothing can be transformed, where everything is forever immutable: the hate man navigates in a universe of certainties. " For the psychoanalyst Pierre Delaunay, “he who hates denies all existence to the object of his hatred; to the point of suppressing it if it manifests itself less. […] He petrifies the other so that there is very little and, if that is not enough, he kills him. The existence of the other, he does not want to know anything about it. " Saverio Tomasella confirms all of these clinical findings. He links hatred to fantasy, notably to social fantasies of "normalcy". Hatred is a powerful engine of “social success” and empowerment, at work as much in companies as in religious institutions and political parties. “One of the main levers of hatred is a conviction without appeal, such as a summons. The accusation that negates the other implies: I know who you are; I say you're not worth anything, you're not worth anything. Hate speech kills; it is not a word but a destructive act. For the psychoanalysts Marie-Claude Defores and Yvan Piedimonte, hatred is imposed in a disguised way: “It can only be perceived from the impact of its intention on the soul resonating in interiority in the form of sensations and images such as cold, frozen, immobilization, petrification, which 'illustrates the dream. Hatred, the world of the negation of the soul, excludes what is its expression, the feeling, and prevents the manifestation of its qualities: mobility, warmth and freedom. " As such, it is possible to define hatred as the radical negation of a person. It corresponds to the intention to destroy the other, by attacking him in his being and his humanity. A frequent pretext given to hatred is to accuse the opposing party of being itself animated by it. As an accusation, it is in this sense a tool for the manipulation of the masses. Orwell gives an example of this with the character of Goldstein in 1984, which the regime uses to derive the discontent of its population towards something other than itself.


Love is frequently proposed, as the antagonist of hate, but can be related: “Psychological literature has often led to the creation of dualities which close thought and block the potential for transformation. Thus, the very common ambivalence between

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