2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Article

May 23, 2022

The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, also known as the Ukrainian War or the 2022 Russian-Ukrainian War, was a military campaign launched on February 24, 2022 by order of Russian President Vladimir Putin. It comes in the wake of the Ukrainian crisis, born of the Euromaidan movement of 2013-2014 which had been followed by the Donbass war from 2014. In 2021 a gradual rise in tensions emerges, first by a prolonged Russian military reinforcement , unprecedented, on the Ukrainian borders with Russia, Belarus and Crimea annexed in 2014 by Russia, then, on February 21, 2022, by the recognition by the Russian President of the independence of the self-proclaimed people's republics of Donetsk and Lugansk , two breakaway areas in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine. After an incursion by the Russian armed forces into the Donbass, a general air, sea and land offensive was launched on the whole of Ukrainian territory on February 24. When it was launched, this invasion was considered the most important military operation that Europe had known since the end of the Second World War. Russia is accused, in particular by the West — namely the European Union (EU), the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia — as well as by the G7, of waging a war of aggression against the Ukraine, an action condemned or deplored by the vast majority of the international community. An unprecedented series of economic, cultural and sporting sanctions are gradually being put in place against the Russian Federation, while several countries, including NATO and European Union member states, provide aid to Ukraine attacked by providing, in particular, offensive and defensive military equipment, food, medical equipment and significant financial aid. European solidarity is also expressed by the reception of Ukrainian refugees. Prior to discussions or negotiations, the government of Vladimir Putin demands the overthrow of the Ukrainian government, what he calls the "denazification" of Ukraine, the dissolution of its army, the neutrality of the country, the recognition of the annexation of Crimea and the independence of the two oblasts of Donbass, of which the separatists had only controlled part since 2014. Russian forces are further accused of numerous war crimes, including strikes deliberately targeting civilian populations in encircled towns, as well as massacres of civilians, such as in the vicinity of kyiv, discovered after they withdrew to reposition to the east and south. This Russian repositioning is intended to conquer the entire Donbass and create territorial continuity along the coast of the Sea of ​​Azov, up to the Crimean peninsula annexed by Russia in 2014, or even further, up to Odessa and beyond, to join the self-proclaimed Russian-speaking breakaway republic of Transnistria. In Russia, the invasion is officially called "special military operation", or in Russian специальная военная операция (spetsialnaya voiennaya operatsia). Within the framework of state propaganda and the strict control of the narrative imposed on the population, the use of several words, among which "invasion", "war", "bombing of cities" or "civilian casualties", is suppressed. by law and liable to prison, while social networks are censored, as are all local media, many of which are not in line with the regime, have had to close.

Context

Ukraine and Russia, new countries

Breakup of the USSR and consequences

Before the break-up of the Soviet Union, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic