Jaipur or Jaipur (Hindi: जयपुर /ˈdʒəj.pʊr/, from jai, "name of its founder" and pur, "city") is the capital of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur is located 430 m above sea level and 260 km from Delhi, in a basin protected by the Aravalli range.
History of the city
Unlike most human settlements in the Indian subcontinent, where the smallest village is often more than 2,000 years old, Jaipur is of recent foundation: it is the work of Maharaja Jai Singh II, a râjput of the Kachhwâhâ family. (in).
The Maharaja appealed to the Bengali Brahman Vidyadhar Bhattacharya (en) to design the city founded in 1727 and whose main works - main palaces, avenues and central square - will last four years. Located at the foot of the Ârâvalli mountains, it follows a three-by-three checkerboard plan and is surrounded by a wall 6 m high and 4 m wide. The entrance to the city is through eight gates. The original Jaipur had wide avenues 34m wide, with the rest of the streets making up the grid being at least 4m wide. The shops are also experiencing a standardized size, an astonishing rigor in the baroque chaos that reigns in most cities of the subcontinent.
Originally, the city was not the uniform pink that we know today, but offered a wide palette, mainly gray with white highlights. However, in anticipation of Prince Albert's visit in 1876, it was painted pink in its entirety, pink being a traditional welcome colour. Since then, it has kept this use and is nicknamed the pink city.
Jaipur's astronomical observatory, Yantra Mandir, has been a reference worldwide since its commissioning in 1726 until the beginning of modern times.
The city of Jaipur, Rajasthan is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List on July 6, 2019.
History of the Principality
The principality was created in 1093 under the name of Dhundhar with Amber as its capital. It will not cease to exist until India's independence in 1947. In 1900, its total area exceeded 25,000 km2. The mahârâjas of Jaipur belong to the Râjput Kachhwâhâ clan, who claim descent from Ramâ, the king of Ayodhya.
The ruling dynasty of Jaipur provided the Mughal Empire with some of its most distinguished generals. Among them, we note the raja Man Singh I, who fought in their service in Kabul and Orissa; the râja Jai Singh I, better known by his imperial title of Mirza Râja Jai Singh I, and who assists Aurangzeb in all his wars in the Deccan, as well as the mahârâja Jai Singh II, or Sawâî Jai Singh II, a famous mathematician and astronomer and the founder of the city of Jaipur where he moved the capital from Amber. In 1727, the city of Jaipur (Jayapura) was founded and the state took its name.
Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the râja of Âlwâr each seized part of the principality, which experienced a period of trouble and confusion following its confrontation with the Marathas, its conflicts with the principality of Jodhpur and the exactions of Amir Khân, the Afghan adventurer, and his Pindarî dacoits. By a treaty of 1818, the principality came under the protection of the British in exchange for an annual tribute. In 1835, the British administration intervened to put an end to the unrest that had broken out in the city.
During the revolt of the Sepoys, the Maharaja supported the British and his successors remained in power.
Heritage of the city
The city has several monuments of historical and tourist interest:
the Hawa Mahal or “palace of the winds”;
the Jantar Mantar (or Yantra Mandir) an 18th century astronomical and astrological observatory;
the City P