1936 Summer Olympics


December 7, 2021

The 1936 Summer Olympics, the Games of the XIth Olympiad in the modern era, are celebrated in Berlin, Germany from August 1 to 16, 1936. The German capital is named for the second time as the host country, but the Games 1916 Olympics were canceled due to World War I. In the context of the moment, the Berlin Olympics quickly take on a very political significance, even if no one can yet foresee the political changes that will occur in Germany when, in 1931, the IOC entrusted Berlin and the Weimar Republic with the organization of games. After the establishment of the Nazi regime in 1933, several countries asked for the boycott of these Olympic Games and organized alternative games, the Popular Olympics, in Barcelona, ​​which the outbreak of the war in Spain the day before prevented the inauguration. The Berlin Games take place in an atmosphere of xenophobia and anti-Semitism, Adolf Hitler wanting to use this event to propaganda Nazism and promote the ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race, in particular through the documentary The Gods of the stadium by Leni Riefenstahl. Of the 49 nations and 3,967 athletes (including 335 women) who take part in 129 events in 19 sports, Germany is the country with the most medals. In the particular context of the “Nazi Games”, the four gold medals won by black American athlete Jesse Owens in the sprint and long jump represent an important symbol in the history of the modern Olympic Games. But the athlete with the most medals is the German gymnast Konrad Frey (six medals including three gold). On the medal table, the German athletes will impose their dominance throughout the Games, winning 89 medals including 33 gold, ahead of the United States, with 56 medals including 24 gold.

Historical background of the Berlin Olympics

The Olympics were already awarded to Germany in 1916, but were canceled due to World War I. Incriminated and held responsible for the outbreak of the world conflict, Germany was suspended from the Games of 1920 and 1924. However, after a long negotiation process, the German authorities succeeded in having their country reinstated for the Summer Olympics. 1928 and are applying to host the 1936 Summer Games. Their argument is that the Games have already been awarded to Germany in the past - in 1916 - so the infrastructure is already ready, and the bid is presented as a way to restore its image. Despite the many confusions, the world sporting event is attributed to the Weimar regime, thus before the Nazis came to power. In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, the ability to organize such an event was seriously questioned, not least because of the racist and discriminatory ideology of the Nazi Party. In fact, the Nazi regime made matters worse when it suggested the exclusion of Jews from the Berlin Games. To everyone's surprise, despite his heated and hateful speech against the Jews, Hitler approved of the hosting of the Games and promised to do everything to make the event a success. The German dictator publicly proclaims the promotion of relations between Nations and the development of sport among young people; however, its ultimate goal is the prosperity gained from the significant political strengths of hosting the Olympic Games [insufficient source].

Election of the host city

The International Olympic Committee entrusts the organization of the 1936 Summer Olympics to the city of Berlin, during the 29th session of April 26, 1931, in Barcelona. The German capital wins against the candidacy of Barcelona by 43 votes to 16. Alexandria (Egypt), Budapest (Hungary), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Colog

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