July 1961


November 30, 2021


A new constitution was proposed by referendum to 80,000 South Rhodesian voters. Boycotted by 4,000 African voters at Nkomo’s call, it was approved by white voters, content to see the UK relinquish its reserved powers which allowed it to intervene in defense of African interests. Maurice Papon receives from the hands of Charles de Gaulle the cross of Commander of the Legion of Honor. Entry into service of the Mirage III which allowed France to be the first European state to have fighter planes capable of exceeding Mach 2. Profumo affair begins in UK July 1: Britain assists Kuwait amid threat of Iraqi invasion July 2: suicide of Ernest Hemingway, American writer (° 1899). Formula 1: French Automobile Grand Prix. July 5: Bloody clashes in the Constantine and Algiers region on the occasion of the national day organized by the FLN. Launch of the first Israeli space rocket. 11 July: French generals Salan, Jouhaud and Gardy are sentenced to death in absentia by the High Military Tribunal. 12 July: de Gaulle decides for an Algerian state but also for a partition of the territory in order to to be able to regroup the Pieds-Noirs. July 14, Rome: Pope John XXIII shows a very clear desire for openness by welcoming the President of the Italian Council of Ministers Amintore Fanfani to the Vatican and publishing the encyclical Mater et magistra (May 15) which condemns liberalism and social inequalities, consequently the right-wing policies led by the Christian Democracy. Concretely, the Pope invites Catholic Action to abandon politics. 15 July (Formula 1): British Grand Prix. 19 July: speech by John Fitzgerald Kennedy on the status of Berlin. 19 - 22 July, Tunisia: crisis from Bizerte. Claiming the Bizerte base, President Bourguiba stationed his troops around the French installations: a bloody clash ensued. Tunisia breaks diplomatic relations with France and seizes the United Nations Security Council. 21: Gus Grissom becomes the second American astronaut to perform an orbital flight on Mercury 4. July 29: Wallis and Futuna becomes a French overseas territory.


1st of July : Carl Lewis, American athlete. Diana, Princess of Wales († 1997). Kalpana Chawla, Indian astronaut († February 1, 2003). July 2: Samy Naceri, French actor and producer. July 5: Marcello Landi, Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian. July 7: Eric Jerome Dickey, American writer († January 3, 2021). July 8: Valérie Benguigui, French actress († September 2, 2013). July 15: Forest Whitaker actor, director and American producer. July 17: António Costa, Portuguese politician. July 19: Hideo Nakata, Japanese director. July 22: Porphyry, 46th Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church. July 25: Katherine Kelly Lang, American actress. July 27: Daniel C. Burbank, American astronaut. Laurent Bignolas, French journalist and television host. July 28: Scott E. Parazynski, American astronaut. July 30: Laurence Fishburne, American actor. Achdé, scriptwriter and cartoonist. July 31 : Lisa Federle, German doctor and emergency doctor.


July 1: Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer (° 1894). July 2: Ernest Hemingway, American writer (° 1899). July 12: Mazo de la Roche, author. July 11: Paul Tschoffen, Belgian politician (° May 8, 1878). July 13: Victor Moriamé, French poet. July 15: John Edward Brownlee, Premier of Alberta. July 25: Emilio de la Forest de Divonne, Italian aristocrat, president of Juventus from 1936 to 1941. (° 7 s

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