Le Corbusier

Article

October 28, 2021

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, known as Le Corbusier, is a Swiss architect, town planner, decorator, painter, sculptor and author naturalized French, born October 6, 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland) and died August 27, 1965 in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (France). He is one of the main representatives of the modern movement with, among others, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Alvar Aalto and Theo van Doesburg. He thus rubbed shoulders with Robert Mallet-Stevens. Le Corbusier has also worked in town planning and design. He is known for being the inventor of the “housing unit”, a concept on which he began to work in the 1920s, the expression of a theoretical reflection on collective housing. "The standard-size housing unit" (name given by Le Corbusier) will not be built until the reconstruction after the Second World War, in five different units, all different, in Marseille, Briey-en-Forêt, Rezé , Firminy and Berlin. It will take on the value of a solution to the post-war housing problems. Its design envisages in the same building all the collective facilities necessary for life - nursery, laundry, swimming pool, school, shops, library, meeting places. Le Corbusier's architectural work of seventeen sites (including ten in France, the others spread over three continents) was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 17, 2016. A European cultural route entitled “Le Corbusier Destinations: architectural walks ”was created in early May 2019. Le Corbusier's work and thought were particularly influential on the generations of post-war architects and widely disseminated, before entering, with the period of postmodernism, a phase of significant and regular contestation. He is the father of modern architecture, being the first to replace external load-bearing walls with reinforced concrete pillars, placed inside buildings. Consequently, the facades no longer carrying the upper floors, it is possible to dress them with light partitions and multiple and very large windows. He then plays with shapes and spaces, without having to take into account any alignment linked to the weights of the upper floors, this constraint having disappeared. Its main strength has been to considerably reduce construction times. He was the first to use basic techniques and materials, making it possible to build an entire house, on several floors in a few days, like his first complex, the Cité Frugès de Pessac, in the inner suburbs of Bordeaux, a city made up of fifty small buildings, built at the rate of about one new building each week.

Le Corbusier's theories

“Where order is born, well-being is born. His first choices in architecture are those which define purism: simplicity of forms, organization, rigor. This vision is mixed with utopia, happiness being one of the keys to his reflections on town planning. Its architectural "language" applies to both budget accommodation and luxury villas. As early as 1926, Le Corbusier defined “ONE modern architecture” (and not “modern architecture”) in five points (these are the Five points of modern architecture): The piles; The roof terrace; The free plan; The window-banner; The free facade. In 1933, at the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM) in Athens, he said: “The materials of town planning are sun, space, trees, steel and reinforced cement, in that order and in that hierarchy. "[Ref. to be confirmed] Doctor Pierre Winter told him: “our role and yours today is to restore nature to Man, to integrate him into it. "[Ref. to be confirmed] In 1938 and until 1965, he never stopped interested

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