Martin Luther King

Article

October 28, 2021

Martin Luther King Jr., more commonly known as Martin Luther King, born in Atlanta, Georgia, January 15, 1929, and murdered April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee, is an Afro-American pastor, Baptist, and nonviolent activist - American for the American civil rights movement, fervent activist for peace and against poverty. He organizes and leads actions such as the Montgomery bus boycott to defend the right to vote, desegregation and employment of ethnic minorities. He gave a famous speech on August 28, 1963 in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. during the march for jobs and freedom: it was entitled "I have a dream". This speech is supported by John Fitzgerald Kennedy in the fight against racial segregation in the United States; President Lyndon B. Johnson by tireless pleading with members of Congress will succeed in passing various federal laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 legally putting an end to all forms of racial segregation throughout the United States. Martin Luther King became the youngest winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his nonviolent struggle against racial segregation and for peace. He then begins a campaign against the Vietnam War and poverty, which ends in 1968 with his assassination officially attributed to James Earl Ray, whose guilt and participation in a conspiracy are still debated. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter in 1977, the United Nations Human Rights Prize in 1978, the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004, and is considered one of the greatest American speakers. Since 1986, Martin Luther King Day has been a public holiday in the United States. Two Martin Luther King centers for nonviolent action exist, one in Switzerland in Lausanne and the other in Atlanta. Many other monuments (museums, schools) are listed under the name of Martin Luther King all over the world.

Biography

Youth

Martin Luther King is the son of Baptist pastor Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King, church organist. He has an older sister, Christine King Farris, and a younger brother, Albert Daniel Williams King. He was born at 501 Aubrun Avenue in Atlanta, in a house that has been preserved and turned into a national museum, a short walk from Ebenezer Baptist Church, where his father preaches. He grew up in segregationist America, in a privileged environment for the time. His first experience of racial segregation was when he was six years old, when two white playmates tell him they are no longer allowed to play with him. His mother then explains to him that it is because they are now in white segregationist schools. After skipping two years of high school and without having officially obtained his high school leaving certificate, Martin at the age of fifteen entered Morehouse College, a university for black boys. He graduated with the Bachelor of Arts degree in Sociology (license) on June 20, 1948 and entered Crozer Theological Seminary for a Bachelor of Divinity in Chester (Pennsylvania) - Diploma which corresponds to a university license in theology. —Which he obtained on May 12, 1951. He obtained his doctorate in theology from Boston University on June 18, 1955. Charges of plagiarism against his doctoral thesis at Boston University lead in 1991 to an official investigation by officials of this university. These conclude that about a third of the thesis is plagiarized from an article written by a previously graduate student, but it is decided not to withdraw his title from Martin Luther King, as the thesis con

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