January 23, 2022

Melbourne (/mɛlbuʁn/; English: /ˈmɛlbn̩/) is the capital of the state of Victoria, Australia. The second urban agglomeration in the country after Sydney, "Greater Melbourne" (Greater Melbourne) has 4,968,000 inhabitants at the official census of 2020. The city is located on Port Phillip Bay, which opens onto Bass Strait. Its inhabitants are the Melbournians (Melburnians in English). Melbourne is an important commercial, industrial and cultural centre. The city is often referred to as the "sporting and cultural" capital of Australia, as it is home to many of the country's most important cultural and sporting events and institutions. It was ranked, with six points, a gamma (or minor) world city in Loughborough University's 1998 rankings, then alpha- in the 2000, 2004, 2008, 2010 and 2012 rankings. Melbourne is known for its mix of Victorian and contemporary architecture, its extensive tram network, its Victorian parks and gardens, and for its multicultural society. It hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Melbourne is rated by The Economist as the most livable city in the world. Melbourne was founded by free settlers in 1835, 47 years after the first European penal colony settled in Sydney, as an agricultural development area around the Yarra River. Rapidly transformed into a metropolis during the Victorian Gold Rush of the 1850s, Wonderful Melbourne became Australia's largest city in 1865, but was overtaken and overtaken by Sydney in the early XXth century. Melbourne served as the federal seat of government from the start of the Federation in 1901 until the federal parliament moved to the new town of Canberra in 1927, marking the end of a period when Australia had no capital.


The Yarra River and Port Phillip areas that have now become the location of the city of Melbourne were originally inhabited by the Wurundjeris, a people of the Kulin nation. It is estimated that the area was occupied by Aborigines for at least 40,000 years. The first British penal colony in the Port Phillip district was established in 1803 on Sullivan Bay, but this colony was abandoned after a few months of occupation. In May and June 1835, the area which is now central and north of Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a prominent member of the Port Phillip Association, who brokered an agreement for the occupation of 600,000 acres (2,400 km2) of land with eight wurundjeri chiefs. He chose a site on the north bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "it would be the place for a village to be established" and returned to Launceston in Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land). However, by the time some of the Association settlers arrived to settle in the new village, another party led by John Pascoe Fawkner had already arrived aboard the Enterprize and established a settlement at the same location, the August 30, 1835. The two groups finally agreed to share the premises. Batman's agreement with the Aborigines was canceled by the government of New South Wales (which then governed all of eastern Australia), which compensated the Association. Although this meant that the settlers subsequently became illegal occupiers of Crown land, the government accepted the settlers' fait accompli and allowed them to remain in the new town (first known by various names, including "Bearbrass "). In 1836 Governor Richard Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip district of New Wales

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