Moliere

Article

October 19, 2021

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known as Molière, is a French actor and playwright, baptized on January 15, 1622 in Paris, where he died on February 17, 1673. Coming from a family of Parisian merchants, he joined forces at the age of 21 with a dozen comrades, including the actress Madeleine Béjart, to form the troupe of the Illustre Théâtre which, despite the collaboration of renowned playwrights, did not succeed. to win in Paris. For thirteen years, Molière and his Béjart friends roamed the southern provinces of the kingdom in an itinerant troop maintained by several successive protectors. During this period, Molière composed a few farces or small comedies and his first two major comedies. Back in Paris in 1658, he quickly became, at the head of his troupe, the favorite actor and author of the young Louis XIV and his court, for whom he designed numerous shows, in collaboration with the best stage architects, choreographers and musicians of the time. He died at the age of 51, hours after starring for the fourth time in the title role of The Imaginary Invalid. A great creator of dramatic forms, interpreter of the main role of most of his plays, Molière exploited the various resources of the comic - verbal, gestural and visual, situational - and practiced all kinds of comedy, from farce to comedy character. He created individualized characters, with complex psychology, who quickly became archetypes. A lucid and penetrating observer, he painted the manners and behaviors of his contemporaries, sparing hardly anyone but the ecclesiastics and high dignitaries of the monarchy, to the delight of his audience, both at court and in town. Far from being limited to harmless entertainment, his great comedies question well-established principles of social organization, arousing resounding controversies and lasting hostility from devout circles. Molière's work, some thirty comedies in verse or prose, with or without ballet and music entries, is one of the pillars of literary education in France. It continues to be a great success in France and around the world, and remains one of the references of universal literature. His eventful life and strong personality have inspired playwrights and filmmakers. A sign of the emblematic place it occupies in French and French-speaking culture, French is commonly designated by the periphrase “language of Molière”, just as, for example, German is “langue de Goethe”, English "language of Shakespeare", Spanish "language of Cervantes" and Italian "language of Dante".

Biography

The youth of Molière

Family

Son of Jean Poquelin (1595-1669) and Marie Cressé (1601-1632), Jean-Baptiste Poquelin was born in the first days of 1622, which makes him, to a few years, the contemporary of Cyrano de Bergerac, de Furetière, Tallemant des Réaux, Colbert, D'Artagnan, Ninon de Lenclos, La Fontaine, du Grand Condé and Pascal. On January 15, it was held on the baptismal font of Saint-Eustache church by his grandfather Jean Poquelin († 1626) and Denise Lecacheux, his maternal great-grandmother. The Poquelins of Paris, many at the time, are from Beauvais and Beauvaisis. The parents of the future Molière live in the very populous district of Les Halles, in the house known as the “Pavillon des Singes”, at the eastern corner of rue des Vieilles-Étuves (now rue Sauval) and rue Saint-Honoré, where his father, Jean, upholsterer merchant, set up his business two years earlier, before marrying Marie Cressé. The windows overlook the square known as the crossroads of the Croix-du-Trahoir, which since the early Middle Ages has been

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