United Nations Organization
November 30, 2021
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization of currently 193 member states. It was established on October 24, 1945 by the ratification of the United Nations Charter signed on June 26, 1945 by the representatives of 51 states. It then replaces the League of Nations.
The primary objectives of the organization are the maintenance of international peace and security. To accomplish them, it promotes the protection of human rights, the provision of humanitarian aid, sustainable development and the guarantee of international law and has specific powers such as the establishment of international sanctions and military intervention. .
The United Nations Charter defines six main organs: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat. The United Nations system more broadly includes programs, funds, specialized and related institutions.
The six official languages of the United Nations are English, Arabic, Spanish, French, Mandarin and Russian. The United Nations Secretariat recognizes only English and French as a working language, the United Nations Economic and Social Council recognizes English, Spanish and French, and the rest of the UN bodies use the six official languages.
Since January 1, 2017, the Secretary General of the United Nations, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council, is the Portuguese António Guterres.
The headquarters of the United Nations are in New York and benefit from the extraterritorial regime. The 193 member states are represented by a permanent ambassador to the UN.
Before the UN, other international organizations worked for world peace. The actions of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, created in 1889, and of the International Peace Bureau, created in 1891, contributed to the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (tribunal of The Hague) in 1899. After the First War world, they support the creation of the International Labor Organization and the League of Nations.
The League of Nations was founded on June 28, 1919 with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles: its goal is to maintain peace. It was active between 1919 and 1939 (de jure until 1946). But its credibility was tested by World War II. To overcome this failure, and in order to institutionalize a new space for international dialogue, US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt wants a new organization to be created.
The first foundations of post-war international architecture were laid on August 14, 1941 with the signing of the Atlantic Charter by the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill. The two leaders “are convinced that all the nations of the world […] will eventually have to renounce the use of violence. […] Pending the establishment of a permanent general security system established on broader bases, it is essential to disarm these nations ”. This declaration was completed in September by the signing of nine European states occupied or at war with Nazi Germany, as well as by the Free French Forces.
The United Nations Declaration was signed on January 1, 1942 in Washington DC by 26 states fighting against the Axis forces. It is the first time that the expression "United Nations", whose authorship is attributed to Roosevelt, is used; it then designates the commitment of the signatories to contribute together to the war effort and not to sign a separate peace with the Axis.
It was only with the Moscow and Tehran conferences that China, the United States, the Soviet Union and