The Covid-19 pandemic is a pandemic of an emerging infectious disease, called coronavirus disease 2019 or Covid-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. It appeared on November 16, 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province (central China), before spreading around the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO) first alerts the People's Republic of China and its other member states, then declares a state of public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020.
On March 11, 2020, the Covid-19 epidemic was declared a pandemic, by the WHO, which called for essential protective measures to prevent the saturation of intensive care services and to strengthen preventive hygiene (elimination of physical contact, kisses and handshakes, end of crowds as well as unnecessary travel and travel, promotion of hand washing, implementation of quarantine, etc.). To curb the formation of new sources of contagion and preserve the reception capacities of their hospitals, many countries are deciding on containment measures, closing their borders and canceling sporting and cultural events. These decisions have economic, social and environmental consequences and pose uncertainties and fears on the global economy and on the education, health and fundamental rights of populations.
In May 2021, the observation is that the global impact of Covid-19 may not be able to be estimated one day, so "we are still debating the results of the Spanish flu" from a century ago, recalls the demographer Stéphane Helleringer, for whom this question "will occupy demographers and epidemiologists for many years".
Etymology and gender
Chronology of the Covid-19 pandemic
Since the appearance of SARS and then MERS, a new coronavirus pandemic was expected and announced by various experts in the field.
According to phylogenetic studies published between February and May 2020, the disease appears between October and December 2019, and more precisely at the end of November. However, in a study published in June 2020, researchers from the University of Barcelona announce that they have found the presence of this virus in frozen samples of Barcelona wastewater, taken on March 12, 2019.
According to information known in February 2020, the first patient diagnosed (estimated at that time as patient zero) was identified on December 1, 2019 in Wuhan in Hubei province, central China.
On December 16, 2019, the first hospitalization was noted.
The World Health Organization (WHO) initially alerts the People's Republic of China and its other member states, then declares a state of public health emergency of international concern on January 30, when 10,000 contaminations and 213 deaths have been recorded in China. Since its creation on April 7, 1948, WHO has declared an international emergency only five times.
On January 13, 2020, a first case was discovered outside mainland China. Two cruise ships (the MS Westerdam and the Diamond Princess) are also affected. The total number of sick people outside China exceeded 1,500 in mid-February. [Ref. necessary] From January 2020, the Chinese government is implementing containment procedures, and places several cities and then an entire region in quarantine, closing many public sites and deploying sanitary means.  The disease is spreading outside from China as early as January, and on February 25, 2020, the number of new cases reported daily outside China is higher than in the country.
On March 11, 2020, the Covid-19 epidemic was declared a pandemic by the WHO, which called for essential protection measures for p