October 28, 2021

Paris (/pa.ʁi/) is the most populous municipality and the capital of France. It is located at the heart of a vast sedimentary basin with fertile soils and a temperate climate, the Paris basin, on a loop of the Seine, between its confluences with the Marne and the Oise. Paris is also the capital of the Île-de-France region and the center of the metropolis of Greater Paris, created in 2016. It is divided into districts, such as the cities of Lyon and Marseille, which number twenty. Administratively, since January 1, 2019, the city has been a collectivity with a special status called “Ville de Paris” (previously, it was both a municipality and a department). The State has specific prerogatives there exercised by the Paris police prefect. The city underwent profound transformations under the Second Empire in the decades of 1850 and 1860 through major works consisting in particular of the construction of wide avenues, squares and gardens and the construction of many buildings, directed by Baron Haussmann, giving the old medieval Paris the face we know today. The city of Paris had 2.187 million inhabitants on January 1, 2020. Its inhabitants are called Parisians. The Parisian agglomeration has grown significantly during the twentieth century, bringing together 10.73 million inhabitants on January 1, 2020, when its urban area (the agglomeration and the peri-urban ring) had 12.78 million inhabitants. The Parisian agglomeration is thus the most populous in France, it is the third in the European continent and the 32nd most populous in the world on January 1, 2019. The position of Lutèce, on the island today called the Ile de la Cité, allowing the crossing of the great navigable river that is the Seine by a way connecting the North and the South of the Gauls, in fact since Antiquity an important city, capital of Parisii, then place of stay of a Roman emperor. Its position in the center of the territory controlled by the Frankish kings makes it choose as the capital of France instead of Tournai. Located in the heart of a fertile agricultural territory with a humid and mild climate, Paris became one of the main cities of France during the 10th century, with royal palaces, rich abbeys and a cathedral. During the 12th century, with the University of Paris, the city became one of the first centers in Europe for education and the arts. The royal power being fixed in this city, its economic and political importance does not cease growing. Thus, at the beginning of the 14th century, Paris was one of the most important cities in the Christian world. In the 17th century, it was the capital of the main European political power; in the 18th century, one of the largest cultural centers in Europe; and in the 19th century, the capital of arts and pleasures. From the 16th century to the 20th century, Paris was the capital of the French Colonial Empire. From 1804 to 1814, it was the capital of the Napoleonic Empire which covered much of Europe. Paris has therefore played a leading role in the history of Europe and the world since the Middle Ages. Paris symbolizes French culture. Nicknamed the City of Light, it is home to world-famous monuments such as the Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral, the Eiffel Tower or the Arc de Triomphe at the top of the avenue des Champs-Élysées, and it is one of the most popular cities. most visited in the world. In 2015 it was voted the most admired city in the world. Its Louvre Museum is the largest and most visited art museum in the world. Paris is the luxury capital of the world. The first and third world groups have their headquarters in Paris. Among the most valued luxury brands in the world, French brands are the most numerous and the top three are from Paris. In Paris, the most prestigious international week takes place every year.

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