Patriotism refers to the dedication of an individual to the country that he recognizes as his homeland.
History of patriotism in France
In the 18th century
The word patriotism according to Monique Cottret is a word created around 1750 at the time of the translation of Lord Bolingbroke's book Letters on the spirit of patriotism and on the idea of a patriotic king by Claude de Thiard de Bissy. The word will be used in France by Étienne-François de Choiseul during and after the Seven Years' War to mobilize public opinion. It is notably used to glorify France and castigate England By a poet like Charles-Pierre Colardeau in his 1762 poem Le Patriotisme. Choiseul encourages the academies to take up the subject. This is how Father Millot addressed a Speech on French Patriotism to the Academy of Lyon.
The physiocrats consider that the homeland and the patrimony are joined and that, rejecting the traders and the financiers, only landowners have a homeland and that the state should be governed by them alone.
At the start of the French Revolution, patriotic societies were formed, such as the rather moderate club of 1789, as well as the Patriotic Society of Luxembourg. This last company is considered by François Pairault as being one of the most radical groups of the French Revolution.
In the 19th century
The historian François Caron specifies that from the reign of Napoleon III, the main object experienced by the French is spiritual. To do this, he recalls that “the religious question is inseparable from the patriotic question: each party claims to embody the“ soul ”of France. Emperor Napoleon III owes most of his prestige to the triumphant image of the homeland he embodies. It recalls a time when the glory of France was without equal, when this country had carried beyond its borders the principles of the freedom of peoples and civilization. At the same time, the Catholic party sees in the union of the State and the Church a means of establishing a Christian city of which France is the place of election. In contrast, it is loyalty to revolutionary France which gives the combat its meaning and its ideal. »Further on, he distinguishes between a chauvinist orientation and a universalist tradition of patriotism through the French defeat of 1870.
Patriotism in Italy
In Italy, the term patriot (sometimes patriot of Italian Unity) designates people who fought for the unification of the Italian peninsula (then divided into multiple kingdoms: the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Papal States, the Kingdom of the Two -Sicilus and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany) during the 19th century.
"Patriotism is love for your own people. Nationalism is hatred of others. »Romain Gary, European Education (ed. Gallimard, 1956 - page 246 of the ed. Folio, 1996).
“What is nationalism? It is a patriotism which has lost its nobility and which is to noble and reasonable patriotism, what the fixed idea is to normal conviction. »Albert Schweitzer, Psychopathology of nationalism.
Monique Cottret, Choiseul, Paris, Tallandier, coll. “The obsession with power”, 2018, 509 p. (ISBN 979-10-210-3195-1);
Civics, citizenship, citizen,
Sovereignty, National identity, nationality
General interest, Common good, Nation, regionalism,
Nationalism, Chauvinism, communitarianism, tribalism, clanism, autonomism, family spirit
Economic patriotism, protectionism, national preference
The War Prayer, Mark Twain
Marc Angenot, Antimilitarism Against "Patriotic Religion", Words. The languages of politics. Wars and peace. Debates, combat