November 28, 2021

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), in long form the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), is a transcontinental country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe (even, in a more restricted sense and according to some interpretations, in Northern Europe). Bordering Belgium to the south and Germany to the east, the Netherlands also has a border with France on the island of Saint-Martin (Caribbean). A constitutional monarchy with 17.2 million inhabitants in 2019, the kingdom has the city of Amsterdam as its capital (more precisely as a constitutional capital), although government institutions - executive, legislative and judicial - sit in La Hague. The king, currently Guillaume-Alexandre, is the head of state. It is administered in four autonomous territories: Aruba, Curaçao, Saint-Martin and the European territory, itself divided into twelve provinces, to which are added three other municipalities with special status, located in the overseas part (Bonaire, Saba and Saint-Eustache). Geographically, the country has unique characteristics, having one of the lowest average altitudes in the world (which explains its name): about a quarter of the territory in Europe is located below the level of the North Sea, which bathes it. to the west and north ,,. 18.41% of the total land area of ​​the Netherlands is covered with water. The territories now united as the Netherlands are, in their history, relatively independent of any centralized royal power, before the 16th century, although included in the Holy Roman Empire. While Charles V affirmed a national unity in 1549, his son, Philippe II, saw the revolt of the inhabitants of the Netherlands against his authority during the Eighty Years' War. The Republic is then founded on its defeat. The new State experienced a “golden century” when it constituted a colonial Empire, the vestiges of which were the Caribbean territories preserved today, bringing its cultural and artistic influence to a world level. Weakened by the Napoleonic wars and the capture of its naval fleet, the country became the kingdom of Holland in 1806 and did not return to a republican regime when the French left in 1815. It was one of the first states in the world to have an elected parliamentary system that is not overthrown. From 1848, the Netherlands was governed as a parliamentary democracy under the influence of Johan Thorbecke, during the reign of William II. With a long tradition of social tolerance, they are generally seen as a progressive and innovative country, abolishing the death penalty in 1870, legalizing women's suffrage in 1917, and relatively early decriminalizing abortion, prostitution, euthanasia, as well as certain drugs. In 1868, the French poet Charles Baudelaire described the Netherlands as a place "where everything is beautiful, rich, peaceful, honest", before adding: "a singular country, superior to others". Remaining neutral during the First World War and engaged in the Allied camp during the Second World War, the Netherlands signed, in 1945, with Belgium and Luxembourg, the economic treaty of the Benelux customs union, negotiated during the conflict. by the governments in exile of the three countries in London. Subsequently, in its contemporary history, the country becomes one of the founding members of the UN, EU, NATO, OECD and WTO. The construction of the Delta Plan, a system for protecting land from the sea, one of the Seven Wonders of the modern world, was completed in 1997, after 47 years of work. In 2001, the country became the first in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, while the following year, the euro was adopted as its currency, replacing the Dutch guilder. Fi

INSERT INTO `wiki_article`(`id`, `article_id`, `title`, `article`, `img_url`) VALUES ('NULL()','Pays-Bas','Netherlands','Fi','')