Nobel Prize of Peace
October 19, 2021
According to the wishes, defined by the will, of Alfred Nobel. This includes the struggle for peace, human rights, humanitarian aid and freedom. The prize of the year can be shared between two or even three personalities or institutions having rendered great services to humanity through diplomatic channels. It was first awarded in 1901. Awards were given in 1917, 1944 and 1945, but the award was not given in the other years of the two world wars. No award was given in years when no candidate could achieve unanimity (19 years in total). Initially Western, the origin of the candidates gradually extended to the whole world. The Nobel Peace Prize has today an extraordinary political importance, certain prizes having a value of disavowal of authoritarian governments like that of Aung San Suu Kyi in 1991 vis-à-vis the Burmese junta or that of Liu Xiaobo in 2010 with regard to the Chinese government. Certain appointments had a particular resonance like that of Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 which was strongly contested because Roosevelt was "militarist". We can also cite that of the German anti-Nazi journalist Carl von Ossietzky in 1935 and that of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1989. As a whole, the Nobel Prize is given above all to historical figures of humanitarian action, the fight against political oppression or the defense of egalitarian rights such as Albert Schweitzer, Martin Luther King and Mother Teresa. As Alfred Nobel had decided, the Nobel Peace Prize laureates are chosen by a committee appointed by the Norwegian Parliament, while the winners of the other prizes are selected by the Swedish Academic Institution. Moreover, unlike these, awarded during a royal ceremony on December 10 (anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death) in Stockholm, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Oslo because Sweden and Norway came under the same Crown in 1901 before the divorce of these two countries in 1905; As a result of this separation, an arrangement was made regarding the Nobel Prizes and Norway inherited the Peace Prize. It was endowed with an amount of 10 million Swedish crowns (just over one million euros), reduced to 8 million Swedish crowns (just over 900,000 euros). In Le Monde yesterday. Memories of a European (Die Welt von Gestern. Erinnerungen eines Europäers), Stefan Zweig recounts that Bertha von Suttner would have influenced the founding of this prize by convincing Alfred Nobel to repair "the harm he had caused with his dynamite".