Dominican Republic

Article

January 21, 2022

The Dominican Republic (Spanish: República Dominicana) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago, in the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern part of the island, sharing the border with Haiti, making Hispaniola, with Saint-Martin, a second island in the West Indies shared by two sovereign states. The Dominican Republic is the second largest nation in the Antilles by area (after Cuba) with 48,671 km2, and the third largest by population, with approximately 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom approximately 3.3 million live in the area. metropolitan of the capital, Santo Domingo (city). The official language of the country is Spanish. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the indigenous Taíno people occupied Hispaniola, dividing the island into five chiefdoms. The Taíno build an advanced farming and hunting society, and become an organized civilization. During his first voyage in 1492, Christopher Columbus explored and conquered the island for Spain. The colony of Santo Domingo is the seat of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas and the first seat of Spanish colonial rule in the New World. Meanwhile, France occupied the western third of Hispaniola and named its colony Saint-Domingue, which became the independent state of Haiti in 1804, after the Haitian revolution. During the 19th century, the Dominicans were often at war, against the French, the Haitians, the Spaniards or each other, resulting in a society strongly influenced by military men, who ruled the country as if it were their personal kingdom. After more than three hundred years of Spanish domination, the Dominican people declared their independence in November 1821. The leader of the independence movement, José Núñez de Cáceres, wanted the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but the Dominicans were annexed by Haiti in February 1822, which then abolished slavery throughout the country. Isle. True independence will not come until 22 years later, in 1844, after the victory of the Dominican War of Independence following which the separatists officially founded the Dominican Republic. Over the next 72 years, the country experienced mainly internal conflicts, several failed invasions of its neighbor, Haiti, and a brief return to the status of a Spanish colony, before finally ousting the Spaniards during the Dominican Restoration War of 1863- 1865. The United States occupied the country between 1916 and 1924; a quiet and prosperous six-year period under the direction of Horacio Vásquez. From 1930 to 1961, the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo reigned over the country. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, ended with the American military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian regime of Joaquín Balaguer Ricardo (1966-1978 and 1986-1996). Since 1978, the Dominican Republic has evolved towards a representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández since 1996. Danilo Medina succeeded him in 2012, winning 51% of the vote in the elections against his opponent, ex-president Hipólito Mejía Domínguez. He was then replaced by Luis Abinader in the 2020 presidential election. The Dominican Republic has the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central America region and is the eighth largest economy in Latin America. Over the past 25 years, the Dominican Republic has exhibited the fastest economic growth in the Western Hemisphere - with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.3% between 1992 and 2018. Between 2014 and 2015, growth of GDP reached 7.3%, the highest rate in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016, the Dominican economy grew by 7.4%, continuing its trend

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