Kingdom of england
The Kingdom of England is a sovereign state, located in Western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain. From 927, its territory covered that of present-day England, then that of Wales following the invasion of this country in 1284 by Edward I of England. The main royal residence was originally in Winchester (Hampshire) but London and Gloucester were given almost equivalent status - especially London, which became the de facto capital from the beginning of the 12th century. This city, metropolis of England, will then become the capital of the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707 - 1801), then of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801 - 1927) and finally of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since 1927.
Although still used in common parlance, the title of Queen (or King) of England has actually been obsolete and legally false since 1707. The correct appellation in its full form is that of Monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, who is currently Queen Elizabeth II.
History of the kingdom
The kingdom of England does not have a specific date of creation. It is the result of the gradual unification of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which shared the south of Great Britain in the early Middle Ages. From the 9th century, the kings of Wessex (southwest England), who victoriously resisted Viking raids, began to extend their domination over the Midlands and the North of England. Alfred the Great (871 - 899) and his son Edward the Elder (899 - 924) take the title of "King of the Anglo-Saxons". Edward's son, Æthelstan, was the first to rule all of England after the conquest of Northumbria in 927.
Despite some ups and downs, Northumbria was definitely acquired by the House of Wessex in the middle of the 10th century. However, the Viking raids resumed under the reign of Æthelred the Misguided (978 - 1016), who failed to stop them despite the many danegelds paid to the invaders. Danish King Sven with the Forked Beard invaded England four times between 1003 and 1013. In his last offensive, he quickly took control of the kingdom and forced the Misguided Æthelred to flight. However, he died on February 2, 1014 and the great of the kingdom recall Æthelred.
The following year, Knut, the son of Sven, in turn invaded the kingdom. After the death of Æthelred and the defeat of his son and successor Edmond Côte-de-Fer, Knut obtained half of England before being recognized as king of the whole country when Edmond died on November 30, 1016. The Danish regime continued until the death of Hardeknut in 1042. It was a son of Æthelred, Edward the Confessor, who succeeded him.
The Norman Conquest and the Plantagenets
The previous period of peace ended when Edward the Confessor died without an heir on January 5, 1066. His brother-in-law was crowned under the name of Harold II. His cousin [What?] William the Bastard, Duke of Normandy, immediately claimed the throne, arguing that Edward and Harold had promised it to him. The kingdom is then invaded by another pretender to the crown, Harald III of Norway, who is defeated at the battle of Stamford Bridge, by Harold, September 25, 1066. September 28, William landed, in turn, in Sussex . Harold II who is then in York, in the north, crosses all England to block these new invaders. The two armies clash at the Battle of Hastings on October 14. Harold is killed and Guillaume emerges as the winner. He encountered little opposition in the continuation of his conquest. Indeed, apart from a few fortified towns, such as London, Winchester and Exeter, and on the fringes of Wales, places like Ewia