Sinn Féin (Gaelic: /ʃɪnʲ ˈfʲeːnʲ/, English: /ʃɪn ˈfeɪn/, lit. "Ourselves") is a republican political party active in Ireland and Northern Ireland, advocating the reunification of these two entities. It is the first political party in Northern Ireland.
He was associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army until they disarmed in 2005.
Apart from pan-European political parties, it is one of the few political parties to operate in two different countries. However, its members elected to the UK House of Commons at the UK general election routinely abstain from sitting there.
In 1970, the first Sinn Féin split into two parties following the split of its armed wing, the Irish Republican Army: Provisional Sinn Féin and Official Sinn Féin. Later, the Provisional Sinn Féin took over for itself the name Sinn Féin.
Sinn Féin activists are involved in trade unions, neighborhood associations, feminist movements and international solidarity initiatives, particularly against the South American dictatorships and apartheid in South Africa.
Abandoning abstentionism in 1986 (an opportunity for a new split, the Republican Sinn Féin), Sinn Féin took part in the peace process for the Northern Irish conflict and gradually progressed on the political scene, obtaining 18 deputies out of 108 in 1998 to the new Northern Ireland Assembly resulting from the Good Friday Agreement. In 2007, Martin McGuinness became Deputy Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
After gaining four Members of Parliament at Westminster in 2001, Sinn Féin became the main denominational party for Catholics in Northern Ireland, gradually overtaking the Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP) in this role as the majority party. ), with a much more radical discourse.
In the Republic of Ireland, where his influence is much more limited, he obtained five TDs (Teachta Dála or deputies) at Dáil Éireann. He also holds a number of local mandates, notably in the northwest of the country where he controls the town of Sligo.
On May 5, 2005, he obtained five deputies in the British Parliament, strengthening his positions (+ 1 deputy) with 174,530 votes (24.3% in Northern Ireland, +2.6%).
In February 2016, he won 13.85% of the vote in the general election in Ireland and 23 MPs in Dáil Éireann, obtaining his best representation in the Republic.
In January 2017, its historical leader in Northern Ireland, Martin McGuinness, resigned and was replaced by Michelle O'Neill, embodying the new face of the party. After a Northern Irish by-election in March, the party now has (along with its moderate Republican allies) as many seats as the Unionists in the local parliament.
In November 2019, on the occasion of her annual congress (in Irish: Ard Fheis, litt. High Assembly), vice-president Michelle O'Neill declared that "the question is no longer whether, but when the reunification referendum.
In the 2020 Irish general election, the party achieves its best electoral performance by winning 24.5% of the vote and 37 seats and ahead of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael. This success is mainly due to its program of breaking with the austerity policies of successive governments in Dublin: lowering and freezing of rents, construction of social housing, investments in the public hospital, refusal of any postponement of the retirement age. retirement, etc.
Sinn Féin is the main party which campaigned against the Treaty of Nice before the first referendum (2001) on this text in the Republic of Ireland. He also campaigned against the Lisbon Treaty which lasted