Site web

Article

November 28, 2021

A website, website, website, or simply site, is a collection of web pages and resources linked by hyperlinks, defined and accessible by a web address. A site is developed using web programming languages ​​and then hosted on a web server accessible through the global Internet, a local intranet, or any other network, such as the Tor network. The collection of public websites constitutes the World Wide Web.

History

The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1989 by the English CERN engineer, Tim Berners-Lee. The web was primarily designed to automatically share information between scientists, universities and institutes around the world. info.cern.ch was the first website to go online, running on a NeXT computer at CERN. This site is always accessible by internet. The first French website was created in 1992 at the CNRS. At this time, there are only 26 websites. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as FTP and Gopher were used to get files from a server. These protocols provided a hierarchical organization of directories in which the user browsed and chose which files to download.

Definition

A website is a collection of web pages that can be accessed by following hyperlinks within the site. The web address of a site corresponds in fact to the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a web page intended to be the first consulted: the home page. Visiting the pages of a site is called a "visit", because the hyperlinks should allow you to consult all the pages of the site without leaving it (without having to consult a web page outside the site). A visit can start with any page, especially when its URL is given by a search engine. Technically, nothing distinguishes the home page from another page. Web pages are written in a computer language designed to contain hyperlinks, HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). We sometimes speak of "website" by metonymy, instead of website. We should talk about a website for the Internet, but by abuse of language, the expression website is often used. Websites are not necessarily accessible via the internet. For example, intranets can contain one or more websites that cannot be accessed via the Internet. Today, the World Wide Web (the Web) is considered to be made up of all online websites on the internet. The HTTP client-server protocol (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is used for communications between web servers hosting websites, and HTTP client software such as web browsers and crawlers.

Organization of a web project

The different stages of running a web project can be summarized as follows: launch: study of needs, competition and existing conditions for the establishment of specifications; design: development of the structure (tree structure), the content of the web pages and in particular the home page and possibly a search engine, the graphics, which are part of the functional specifications; realization: see below; production: the site is put online, becomes accessible to the target audience; operation: maintenance and promotion phase of the site, with in particular natural referencing (Netlinking) or paid (Google Adwords, Microsoft Adcenter, or others). The implementation phase includes: the reservation and management of a domain name (the web address to which the site is accessible); the implementation of a hosting infrastructure for the site (web servers, database, etc.); the development of the user interface (frontend), the part visible in the browser; the different pages are described in language

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