Suriname

Article

November 30, 2021

Suriname (sometimes also spelled Suriname), in the long form the Republic of Suriname (in Dutch: Suriname and Republiek Suriname), is a country in South America (called Dutch Guyana until its independence in 1975). It is located in the north of the continent, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, in the heart of the Guyana or Guyana plateau. Its neighbors are Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south and French Guiana to the east, and its capital is Paramaribo. The country owes its name to its main waterway, the Suriname River. With a population of approximately 520,000 inhabitants and an area of ​​163,270 km2, Suriname is, after Guyana, the second least densely populated country in the Americas as well as the country with the smallest surface area in South America. Suriname is one of the last two countries on the American continent where driving is on the left side, the other being its neighbor, Guyana. The region was colonized by the United Provinces in the 17th century and took the name of Dutch Guyana. It supplied sugar, coffee, chocolate and cotton to the metropolis as a result of slavery, until its abolition in 1863. Suriname became an autonomous region of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1954 before gaining independence in 1975. A military coup in 1980 marked the beginning of a decade of dictatorship marked by the execution of political opponents (massacres of December 1982) and of villagers belonging to the brown minority (Moïwana massacre) as well as the outbreak of a civil war. The democratic process was reestablished in the early 1990s. The main person responsible for the 1980 coup, Desi Bouterse, was however elected President of the Republic in 2010. The population is concentrated in about 3% of the territory, the rest of the country being at least 97% made up of the Amazon rainforest, and more than 90% of the population is concentrated on the coast that faces the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Surinam script, used since Candide de Voltaire, is still that used in many tourist guides, or certain press organizations. Today, the Suriname spelling is used by the United Nations, the Toponymy Commission of the National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN), the European Union and the International Organization for Standardization. The former Dutch Guyana gained its independence from the Netherlands in 1975, after having been declared autonomous in 1954. The country finally changed its name in 1987. The origin of its name is hydronym, Suriname is indeed the course of most important water in the country.

History

Suriname is one of the many colonies of the Côte Sauvage, between the Orinoco delta and that of the Amazon, today occupied by part of Venezuela and Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, and Guyana . Native American tribal groups settled from 1100 BC. AD, on the Guyana plateau: Paleo-Indians, the Arawaks in the 1st century, then around the year 900 the Kalinagos and finally Tupis. These four groups were still present when the Europeans arrived.

Colonial era

The first contacts between Europeans and Amerindians were made in 1500, during Spanish expeditions to the coasts (Pinzón). British expeditions were led much later (1595-1616) by Walter Raleigh. From 1616, the first permanent Dutch colonies settled on the estuaries of Essequibo, Berbice and then Demerara (now Guyana). In 1630, the British settled at the mouth of the Suriname River, which in 1651 led to the creation of the prosperous and short-lived British colony by Anthony Rowse and Lord Francis Willoughby of Parham, governor of Barbados. British settlers and black slaves then arrived from Barbados. This

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