Television

Article

January 21, 2022

Television is a set of techniques intended to transmit and receive audiovisual sequences, called television programs (emissions, films and advertising sequences). The content of these programs can be described according to analog or digital methods while their transmission can be done by radio waves or by cable network. The device making it possible to display images of a program is called television, or, by metonymy, television, or by apocope television, or by abbreviation TV. Television is dependent on an economic, political and cultural network (national or regional languages, genres and formats, regulations and broadcast authorisation).

Etymology

The feminine noun television is reputed to be borrowed from the English television, a noun composed of tele- ("tele-") and vision ("vision"), and attested in 1907.

History

Timeline

1877-1878: following the discovery of the photosensitive properties of selenium and the design by Carl Wilhelm Siemens of an "artificial electric eye", various "inventors" (Adriano de Paiva in Portugal, Constantin Senlecq in France, George R .Carey in the United States, Julian Ochorowicz in Poland) formulate proposals for remote image transmission devices based on the use of selenium. 1882: the British electrician L.B. Atkinson imagines the first mirror drum scanning system, which will be theorized in 1889 by the Alsatian Lazare Weiller and used by various mechanical television systems in the 1920s. 1884: German inventor Paul Nipkow patents a device for analyzing images by lines, the Nipkow disk, which is one of the two mechanical television scanning systems. 1897: invention of the cathode ray tube by Karl Ferdinand Braun. 1900: during the International Congress of Electricity which takes place in Paris within the framework of the Universal Exhibition, the Russian engineer Constantin Perskyi presents a communication "Television by means of electricity" which is the first appearance of the term in French . 1921: Édouard Belin transmits a fixed image by radio and no longer by telephone with his belinograph invented in 1907 and carries out television tests in 1926. 1926, January 26: Scotsman John Logie Baird makes the first public live television broadcast in London: television with a mechanical system (without a cathode-ray tube). 1927, December 28: the Poincaré government creates the broadcasting service, attached to the PTT. 1928: Hovannes Adamian shows color television in London. 1931, April 14: first French transmission, by René Barthélemy, in front of 800 guests, of an image of thirty lines (short film and live shots) between the laboratory of the Compagnie des Compteurs de Montrouge and the school power plant in Malakoff located 2 kilometers away, presented by Suzanne Bridoux. This is the first transmission by transmitter, others having been carried out previously but by wire. 1931, December 6: Henri de France founds the General Television Company (CGT). 1932, in December: invention of a television camera and realization by René Barthélemy of an experimental program in black and white of one hour per week: “Paris Télévision”. About a hundred positions receive this program, most of them in the public services. 1935, April 26: inauguration by PTT Minister Georges Mandel of the first official public French television broadcast, in 60 lines, on the Radio PTT Vision channel presented by the actress Béatrice Bretty at 97 rue de Grenelle. 1935, November 17: Barthelemy improves the definition of the television which passes in 180 lines and a transmitter of short waves is installed at the top

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