The Czech Republic, in the long form the Czech Republic (in Czech: Česko / ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ / and Česká republika / ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpublɪka /), is a central European country without access to the sea, surrounded by Poland to the northeast, the Germany to the northwest and west, Austria to the south and Slovakia to the east-southeast.
Bringing together the historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia and part of Silesia, the Czech Republic was formally born on January 1, 1969 from the federalization of Czechoslovakia.
It has been independent since January 1, 1993 on the occasion of the split of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, the last form of government of Czechoslovakia.
Czechia has been a member of NATO since March 12, 1999 and has been part of the European Union since May 1, 2004.
The Czechs, "people of Čech", named after a mythical chief, arrived in the 6th century during the barbarian invasions in Bohemia, a country which takes its name from the Celtic people of the Boians - an origin that can also be found in German Böhmen -; the Czechs use their own toponym, Čechy (/ tʃexi /).
In the Middle Ages, the chronicles, kept by clerics writing Latin, mention the "kingdom of Bohemia" (regnum Bohemiae). Later, the kingdom passed from the Přemyslids to the House of Luxembourg which occupied the imperial throne in the 14th and 15th centuries and then merged into the House of Habsburg which succeeded it. It is referred to as the “Land of the Crown of Bohemia” (Země Koruny české).
Seventeenth-century Czech writer Pavel Stránský de Záp wrote the book Respublica Bojema ("About the Czech State") while in exile. He gives a general account of the kingdom of Bohemia before 1620: "The country is found in the European work of the world inhabited by my nation" (the Czech nation) "is generally called" (Čechy (Bohemia), in Latin ) “Bojemia, Bohemia, Boemia, also Czechia” (Czech Republic). “According to the teachings of geographers, they start in the west between the 34th and 35th degrees of longitude and extend a little further to the 38th degree, from the southern limit between the 48th and 49th degrees, it extends up to the 51st degree. "[Ref. necessary]
Czechia, Czech countries and Czech Republic
When, in 1918, the West Slavs freed themselves from Austro-Hungarian rule (the Slovaks spent a thousand years under Hungarian rule and the Czechs almost four centuries under that of German rulers, notably the Habsburgs), the name of the new country becomes Czechoslovakia (Československo), aggregation of Česko ("Czechia") and Slovensko ("Slovakia") derived from the adjectives český ("Czech", see "Czech countries") and slovenský ("Slovak"), see " Slovakia ”) with the suffix -sko which is used, in Czech and Slovak, to form the name of a country. The term Česko is thus a neologism translated into French by Tchéquie, not to be assimilated to the toponym Čechy which designates only Bohemia.
The Czech Language Institute, the Czech equivalent of the French Academy, has neither imposed nor refuted the word Česko: it devotes a long didactic and explanatory chapter to it on its site. On the other hand, it was advocated by the Czech Office for Surveys, Cartography and Cadastre (cs) (Český úřad zeměměřický a katastrální) in 1993 as the “correct toponym” of the country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs then followed suit and recommended this name, duly adapted to each language, on its site. The UN toponymy commission recommends, for French, the use of the term Czech Republic, while recognizing the existence of this short form.
On April 14, 2016, the country's top leaders took the decision to officially adopt the short form Czechia -