Teschen Treaty

Article

May 23, 2022

The Treaty of Teschen is a peace treaty signed on May 13, 1779 in Teschen in Austrian Silesia between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Monarchy of Austria to end the War of the Bavarian Succession, which had opposed them since death without posterity of Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, in 1777.

Background

With the death of Elector Maximilian III Joseph on December 30, 1777, the Bavarian line of the House of Wittelsbach died out. A number of European dynasties claim the heritage, notably the Habsburgs claiming the domains of the former Duchy of Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate. The heir, Charles-Theodore, Elector Palatine, was willing to recognize these demands in exchange for possessions in earlier Austria. Consequently, Austrian troops advanced into Bavaria from January 3, 1778. However, the policy of Charles-Théodore ran up against the opposition of the widow of Maximilien III Joseph, Marie-Anne de Saxe, and many members of the house of Wittelsbach, in particular Charles II Auguste de Palatinat-Deux-Ponts , Marie-Anne of Palatinate-Soulzbach and Marie-Antoinette of Bavaria. On July 5, 1778, King Frederick II of Prussia intervened in the conflict, invading Bohemia with his 80,000 troops and starting the War of the Bavarian Succession in which Charles Theodore himself declared himself neutral. This military confrontation, also called the "Potato War" (Kartoffelkrieg), saw no battle going beyond a few minor skirmishes.

Conclusion and Provisions

On the initiative of Catherine II of Russia, the belligerents began peace negotiations. The treaty concluded at Teschen (Cieszyn) on May 13, 1779, the birthday of Empress Maria Theresa, was guaranteed by the Russian Empire and France. The Holy Roman Empire and Emperor Joseph II ratified the agreement on February 29 and March 8, 1780. Austria receives from Bavaria the lands on the right bank of the Inn extending south from Passau to the limits of the Archdiocese of Salzburg. This region now called Innviertel, comprising the districts of Schärding, Ried and Braunau, is today part of the Land of Upper Austria. In return, Prussia's claims to the Franconian principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth were recognized and the electorate of Saxony received an indemnity of 6 million guilders. The electoral dignity of the Palatinate of the Rhine was suppressed and joined to that of Bavaria, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia of 1648; at the same time, Austria recognized legal succession within the branches of the House of Wittelsbach.

Table of Teschen

Around 1780, Prince-Elector Frederick Augustus III of Saxony had the Teschen table made by cabinetmaker Johann Christian Neuber and offered it to Baron de Breteuil, envoy from France, to thank him for his important role in the conclusion of the treaty.

Notes and References

Portal of the Kingdom of Prussia Portal of Austria Portal of international relations Portal of peace