XIXth century


October 19, 2021

The 19th century (or 19th century) begins on January 1, 1801 and ends on December 31, 1900. It extends between Julian days 2,378,861.5 and 2,415,385.5.


For Europe, historians generally start the 19th century in 1815 (end of the Napoleonic Empire and Congress of Vienna) and have it end in 1914 (start of the First World War). British historian Eric Hobsbawn coined the notion of the "Long Nineteenth Century" from 1789 to 1914. Three major trends have marked this century: Industrialization; Democratization; Nationalism. This century has seen a demographic explosion; we are talking about a demographic revolution.


We can say that the nineteenth century is the century of Europe. From the wars of the Napoleonic times (1799-1815), Europe experienced many other wars which drew its new geopolitical map. Among the most important phenomena of this century are: the collapse of the old Spanish and Portuguese Empires (mainly in America; the Portuguese Empire remains intact in the rest of the world), the formation of the Second French Colonial Empire and the First German Empire and especially the expansion of the British Empire; the building of Italian unity and the liberation of the Balkan provinces; the emergence of national consciousnesses and very powerful patriotic feelings. It is also for Europe, the century of industrial revolutions, which will upset the European landscape and bring immense wealth, but also break old social structures. Finally, for Europe, this is the century when its intellectual elites will transform it, into a huge cauldron, in which all ideas and all the arts will boil. Its scientists, its artists, its intellectuals, will take technological research, scientific research, artistic research, the search for ideas, to a level never reached before.


Reactions of a veritable Zarma army against the Fulani in the middle of the century under the leadership of Issa Korombe. Victory over the Fulani will end Sokoto's invasions in Zarmatarey. 1816-1828: Zulu Empire of Chaka. Colonization of the African continent takes place mainly from the 1880s.


As for Africa, the nineteenth century is the century of European colonization, but with the difference that the old geopolitical structures will in the great majority of cases resist and survive. The European colonizers will in general prefer to keep them and try, while controlling them, to make allies of them.


United States

Despite laborious construction, and from the 13 small states of the East Coast, the United States will gradually appear on the international scene. It was at this time that the famous conquest of the West took place in the American West in the 19th century. This era of American history is also called the Wild West. This period will be marked by: The acquisition of the immense territories of Louisiana, sold by France (1/4 of the current American territory). The Civil War and its hundreds of thousands of dead. The wars of conquest of the Amerindian and Mexican territories north of the Río Grande. Welcoming a very large immigrant population from all over Europe and even Asia, ready to invest, with all its dynamism and all its capabilities in this new country, where anything seems possible. The growth of a large population of slaves from Africa: it is the continuation of the slave trade despite its official abolition in 1807. The discovery on American soil of immense mining (the gold rush), natural, and agricultural resources, and their exploitation.

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