July 5, 2022

Mineralogy or mineralogy (formerly Oryctognosy) is a field of earth sciences (geology) that deals with the study and organization of minerals.

Main parts

The science of mineralogy is divided into two main parts: for general mineralogy and for regular mineralogy.

The General Mineralogy

The general mineralogy chapters are: crystallography/crystal structure - organizes the shape characteristics of crystals, crystal chemistry – discusses knowledge about the internal structure of crystals, crystal physics – describes the physical (e.g. optical) properties of crystals, mineral chemistry – studies the chemical properties of minerals, mineral genetics – deals with the origin and settlement conditions of individual mineral species and mineral associations.

The systematic mineralogy

Systematic mineralogy or mineral systematics groups minerals on the basis of their chemical and crystal structural kinship, describes the shape, lattice structure, physical and chemical properties of mineral species, as well as their formation conditions and important deposits.

Famous Hungarian mineralogists

Ferenc Benkő (1745–1816): author of the first Hungarian mineralogical work, Hungarian mineralogy, that is the science of stones and veins (Cluj, 1786). Pál Kitaibel (1757–1817): In 1794, he determined that some ores in Börzsöny contained a previously unknown semimetal. This later proved to be the same as the tellurium discovered by Ferenc Müller. However, since Kitaibel preceded Martin Klaproth's announcement about this, we must count him among the discoverers of tellurium. József Szabó (1822–1894): World-renowned petrographer and mineralogist, he is credited with establishing the Institute of Mineralogy and Geology at the University of Budapest and writing several university textbooks. József Krenner (1839–1920): former tutor of Loránd Eötvös. From 1866, he was the keeper and later director of the Hungarian National Museum's mineral collection, famous mineralogist and crystallographer, describer of several new mineral species. Its name is also preserved by the mineral name krennerite {(Au,Ag)Te2}. Andor Semsey (1833–1923): Great patron of mineralogy. He bought many collections of minerals, rocks and fossils for our museums, among other things he made the National Museum's meteorite collection world famous. Its name is preserved by the mineral name semseyite {(9 PbS*4Sb2S3)} and andorite. Sándor Koch (1896–1983): between 1919 and 1935, he was a staff member of the National Museum's mineral collection, where he was recommended by his predecessor, József Krenner. After the establishment of the University of Szeged, he headed the mineralogy department there (1940–1968). His two most important summary works are the two-volume Mineralogy written together with Kálmán Sztrókay, and the Minerals of Hungary published in the mid-sixties. his work. Ernő Nemecz State Prize Winner (1983) Mária Vendl is a Hungarian female mineralogist, the first Hungarian woman to be presented at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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Sándor Szakáll: Mineral systematics (University of Miskolc, 2002) Bognár L.: Mineral determinant (Gondolat, 1987) Koch S.–Strókay K.: Mineralogy I–II. (Textbook publisher, 1967) Koch S.: Minerals of Hungary (Akadémiai Kiadó, 1985) Kubovics I.: Rock microscopy I–II. (1993) Á. Juhász: Memories of millions of years (Gondolat, 1987) Nemecz E.: Clay minerals (Akadémiai Kiadó, 1973) L. Pápay: Crystallography, mineralogy, petrology (Szeged University Press, 2006)