Architecture

Article

July 5, 2022

Architecture is an applied scientific and artistic field that deals with the creation of buildings and structures, and in a broader sense, the design of the built environment. Human culture, as one of the most basic forms of human activity, is applied art on the one hand, and engineering science and technological discipline on the other. It is a deliberate alteration of the natural environment that surrounds man, the "violence" of which is constructive. Architecture is not the same as construction. Creating a simple garden shade chair is also construction, a railway embankment is also a serious engineering task, but according to the traditional interpretation, none of these are architecture (this is disputed by more and more people these days). This misunderstanding is usually resolved with the term "architectural art", which in its name refers to the architectural design work with artistic demands. In addition to the construction of buildings, we call architecture the design of interior spaces on the one hand (interior architecture), on the other hand, the creation of harmony between buildings and the creation of their environment up to the urban and sometimes regional scale (city architecture, urbanism, landscape architecture). Architects are less specialized than other professions (such as doctors).

Functional division

The basic system of functional division is legally defined by the Construction Act: 1. the object of architecture: earthwork (landmark), or building that can building (e.g. a house) art object (e.g. bridge, public sculpture or electricity pole). Architectural planning is basically divided based on the functional types of buildings. This is recorded in the so-called zoning of the Building Act: residential buildings, family and apartment buildings, rental apartments, retirement homes, etc. public buildings: religious, administrative, health, social, educational, cultural and sports institutions, factory buildings are production, commercial and hospitality service buildings, warehouses, factory office buildings, shops, shopping centers, logistics centers. These can be: industrial and economic, agricultural or mixed-use buildings. In addition to the above, there are also special purpose buildings (e.g. barracks, airport, etc.) Monument protection deals with the preservation and restoration of monuments.

History

The history of the human built environment is thousands of years old; its important points and eras are (also) marked by famous buildings. The history of architectural art is also divided by famous architects, trends, schools and style periods (although the truly significant works often stretch the boundaries of the current style, or cannot be included in the list of the previous works of the given artist).

Architectural historical periods and styles, trends

The architectural styles and their eras have been divided by many people and in many different ways, so much so that neither their definition nor their names are completely universal - already in England and overseas it differs from the continental practice. The (far from uncontroversial) style eras distinguished in Hungarian practice and architectural education: The 21st century does not have a uniform architectural contemporary style, and even real architectural styles are difficult to distinguish. Analyzing the individual stylistic periods, it can be concluded that their changes were stimulated by technical-technological innovations, in addition to the current aesthetic-artistic approach. Nowadays, when scientific, technical and technological development offers incredible diversity, the subjective intuitions of creators are sometimes only influenced by market fashion trends. Among the styles of the first half of the 20th century, Bauhaus trends are used as "modern" architecture